Cuban Amazon Amazona leucocephala


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened A3cd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd
2012 Near Threatened B1ab(iii,v); C1+2a(i)
2008 Near Threatened B1a+b(iii,v); C1; C2a(i)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass 242 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 590,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 16000-27000 medium estimated 2017
Population trend decreasing poor inferred 1995-2024
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 20-29 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 10-20 - - -
Generation length (years) 9.63 - - -

Population justification: Population estimates for the Bahamas and Cayman Islands are as follows: 6,557 ± 925 on Grand Cayman in 2016, 688 ± 88 on Cayman Brac in 2017 (DoE 2017, Haakonsson et al. 2017), 8,000-13,000 on Great Inagua, 3,000-5,000 on Abaco and around 10 individuals on New Providence (Bahamas National Trust 2016, S. Cant-Woodside in litt. 2016). The population on Cuba is estimated to number 7,000-14,000 individuals based on recorded population density estimates and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied.  The total population is therefore estimated to number 24,242-40,268 individuals, which equates to 16,161-26,845 mature individuals, rounded here to 16,000-27,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is considered to be declining owing mainly to trapping and destruction of nest sites. The population in the Bahamas is considered to have remained stable or increased. The Cayman Islands populations have increased since hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Paloma (2009) and are expected to benefit from a current registration initiative of captive birds. However, the populations are increasingly clumped due to habitat destruction, which significantly reduces the resilience of both the Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac populations (DoE 2019). The Cuban population is thought to have declined over recent years, mainly due to poaching (Cañizares 2012, M. Cañizares in litt. 2016). Although there is no data on the extent of this decline, the species has been classified as Vulnerable in Cuba (Cañizares 2012). The overall population is therefore suspected to have declined by 10-20% over the past three generations. Particularly away from Cuba, the species has benefited from effective conservation action, including the provision of artificial nestboxes (Waugh 2006) and reforestation. If these measures were to stop, population declines would likely accelerate quickly to a rate of 20-29% over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahamas extant native yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) extant native yes
Cuba extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cayman Islands (to UK) Bluff Forest
Cayman Islands (to UK) Mastic Reserve
Cayman Islands (to UK) Central Mangrove Wetland
Cayman Islands (to UK) Botanic Park and Salina Reserve
Cayman Islands (to UK) Frank Sound Forest
Cuba Limones - Tuabaquey
Cuba Sierra del Chorrillo
Cuba Topes de Collantes
Cuba Alturas de Banao
Cuba Desembarco del Granma
Cuba La Mensura
Cuba Pico Cristal
Cuba Alejandro de Humboldt
Cuba Guanahacabibes
Bahamas Great Inagua
Bahamas Southern Abaco
Cayman Islands (to UK) Eastern Dry Forest
Cayman Islands (to UK) Franklin's Forest
Cuba Mil Cumbres
Cuba Cienaga de Lanier y Sur de la Isla de la Juventud
Cuba Ciénaga de Zapata
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Amazona leucocephala. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/cuban-amazon-amazona-leucocephala on 26/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 26/09/2023.