LC
Crested Lark Galerida cristata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 57,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 175000000-249999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 17,700,000-24,500,000 pairs, which equates to 35,300,000-49,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 176,500,000-245,000,000 mature individuals, placed here in the range of 175,000,000-249,999,999 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline following regional declines in recent decades, probably owing to habitat loss and degradation (del Hoyo et al. 2004). In Europe, trends between 1982 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a steep decline (EBCC 2015). The European population decline is estimated to be less than 25% in 11.4 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Thrypti and Orno mountains, Crete
Greece Northern Sifnos
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Mounts Agia Dynati and Kokkini Rachi, Kefalonia
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Serifos island
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Saria island and northern Karpathos
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Thessaly plain
Greece Tyrnavos area
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Samara river valley
France Plateau de Valensole
Italy Piave river
Italy Murge
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Bulgaria Rayanovtsi
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Studenets
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Khersonesko-Fiolentske coastal zone
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Germany Rysumer Nacken
Germany Gohrischheide
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain
Cyprus Mesaoria Plain
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Kormakitis Peninsula
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Galerida cristata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/10/2021.