EN
Crested Argus Rheinardia ocellata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd; C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 591,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-15000 poor estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.4 - - -

Population justification: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The scarcity or even lack of recent records from places where it used to be abundant previously (e.g. Bach Ma National Park, Ke Go Nature Reserve and Lo Xo Pass in Vietnam) indicate the rarity and local extinctions of this once common species. Yet, the population seems to persist in a few protected areas in Vietnam, like in the Bac Huong Hoa Nature Reserve (L.T. Trai in litt. 2018), the Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve (Vu Tien Thinh et al. 2017) and in the Khe Nuoc Trong Forest (D.L. Yong and L.T. Trai in litt. 2018), as well as the Khoun Xe Nong Ma Protected Area in Laos (Mayer 2017). High levels of snaring and habitat loss have been identified as the major threats to the species. 
There is no recent information about the population trend in Malaysia. This population is assumed to be much smaller than the one in Indochina; however, the recent discovery of a few individuals further north-east of the known population near the Taman Negara National Park (D.L. Yong in litt. 2018) indicates that the Malaysian population might be slightly larger than previously assumed. The fact that the Malaysian population occurs in higher altitudes than the Indochinese population might reduce the risk of hunting, as the level of snaring is generally lower in the highlands (J.W. Duckworth in litt. 2018).The overall rate of population decline is not known. However, given the high levels of hunting pressure over the last two decades on the larger population in Indochina while the smaller Malaysian population is presumably stable or even increasing, the rate of decline is precautionarily placed in the band 50-79% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Laos Eastern Bolikhamxay Mountains
Laos Hin Namno
Laos Nakai-Nam Theun
Laos Phou Ahyon
Laos Upper Xe Bangfai
Laos Xe Sap
Malaysia Taman Negara National Park
Vietnam Bach Ma
Vietnam Bi Dup
Vietnam Dakrong
Vietnam Ke Bang
Vietnam Ke Go
Vietnam Khe Net
Vietnam Kon Cha Rang
Vietnam Kon Plong
Vietnam Lo Xo Pass
Vietnam Ngoc Linh
Vietnam Phong Dien
Vietnam Phong Nha
Vietnam Phuoc Binh
Vietnam Pu Mat
Vietnam Truong Son
Vietnam Truong Son
Vietnam Vu Quang

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 1900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 9
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Rheinardia ocellata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/11/2019.