LC
Corncrake Crex crex



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2010 Least Concern
2008 Near Threatened A3c
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 7,070,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3000000-7000000 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Stable poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 1,290,000-2,120,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 2,590,000-4,240,000 mature individuals (including 1-1.5 million pairs in European Russia) (BirdLife International 2015). This is marginally higher than the last European population estimate of 1.3-2 million breeding pairs (BirdLife International 2004) and higher than the 1.1-1.8 million pairs previously estimated by Schäffer and Mammen (1999). A further 515,000-1,240,000 pairs are estimated for Asiatic Russia, yielding a global total of 3,600,000-6,700,000 mature individuals. Given the high level of uncertainty in some of the breeding estimates and the apparent scarcity of the species in its non-breeding areas in sub-Saharan Africa, the total population may fall at the lower end of this range; even in the low millions.

Trend justification: Ongoing monitoring since 2002 in Russia (which holds the vast majority of the global population) indicates that numbers have remained stable or are even increasing, with some fluctuations due to extreme weather (A. Mischenko in litt. 2010). Whilst it is difficult to accurately predict future trends owing to the species's extensive range and differing climatic and agricultural conditions in different regions, it is thought that populations in key parts of the range in Russia and Kazakhstan are unlikely to change dramatically in the near future. Its conservation status remains unfavourable in some parts of its range with declines reported in several range countries (BirdLife International Corncrake Conservation Team 2015) although the overall European population trend was recently estimated as stable (BirdLife International 2015). Land-use changes are precautionarily predicted to drive a future decline of 1-19% in the forthcoming three generation (11 year) period.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Angola V Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana V Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Cameroon V Extant Yes
Chad V Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea V Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extinct Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon V Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana V Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guinea U Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali V Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia V Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant Yes
Nigeria V Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda V Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda V Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam V Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Haghartsin
Armenia Jermook
Armenia Mount Ara
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Freiwald
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Meadows on the lower Ill
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Vienna forest
Belarus Balota Dzikoje
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Prostyr
Belarus Prypiackija baloty
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Lesse et Lomme
Belgium Marche en Famenne
Belgium Sinémurienne
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bardaca
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Botswana Okavango Delta
Bulgaria Apriltsi Meadows
Bulgaria Berkovitsa Meadows
Bulgaria Boboshevo Meadows
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Dolna Koznitsa Meadows
Bulgaria Dolni Bogrov-Kazichene
Bulgaria Kocherinovo Meadows
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Bulgaria Meshtitsa Meadows
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Noevtsi Meadows
Bulgaria Ovcharovo Meadows
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Rayanovtsi
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Skrino
Bulgaria Straldzha Complex
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Velchevo Meadows
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Lika Karst Fields
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Plitvice Lakes National Park
Croatia Pokuplje Basin
Croatia Turopolje
Czechia Beskydy mountains
Czechia Boletice
Czechia Doupov hills
Czechia Jeseniky mountains
Czechia Kralicky Sneznik
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Labské pískovce sandstones
Czechia Libava
Czechia Orlicke Zahori
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Denmark Store Vildmose, Ryå and Stavad Enge
Egypt Lake Manzala
Egypt Zaranik Protected Area
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Karula
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Võrtsjärv
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Värtsilä valley
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Basse vallée de L'Indre
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Bassigny
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Les Couzes Nord
France Val de Saône
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Vallée de l'Yèvre
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Vallée du Fouzon
Georgia Adjara-Imereti Ridge
Georgia Bogdasheni Lake
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Kartsakhi Lake
Georgia Kazbegi
Georgia Khanchali Lake
Georgia Madatapha Lake
Georgia Pharavani Lake
Georgia Sagamo Lake
Georgia Tabatskuri Lake
Germany Ahrmündung
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Baar
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Bienwald and Viehstrichwiesen
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Dümmer
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Eastern Erzgebirge around Fürstenau
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Elbe meadows at Großes Ostragehege Dresden
Germany Engerser Feld
Germany Enz valley Mühlhausen - Roßwag
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Federseeried
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Heidmoor lowlands
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower reaches of river Warnow
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Mittelrheinisches Becken with Laacher See and Thürer Wiesen
Germany Moorland belt of Süderelbe-Marschrandmoor (HH) and moorlands near Buxtehude (NI)
Germany Murnauer Moos and Loisach-Kochel-Moore
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Oder lowlands Lebus-Ratzdorf
Germany Oderbruch
Germany Offenbacher Wald, Bellheimer Wald and Queichwiesen
Germany Osterried near Hermaringen
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Randow-Welse-Bruch / Uckermärkische Agrarlandschaft
Germany Recker Moor/ Düsterdieker Niederung/ Seester Feld
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Schönbuch with Spitzberg
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Speyerer Wald, Nonnenwald and Bachauen between Geinsheim and Hanhofen
Germany Stepenitz-Maurine-Radegast
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Warnow with Göwe and Mildenitz
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Werderland
Germany Werra meadows near Bad Salzungen
Germany Wetterau
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Germany Wurzacher Ried
Germany Wurzelbergfarmde
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Ipoly Valley
Hungary Kesznyéten
Hungary Nagy-berek of Fonyód
Hungary Szatmár-Bereg
Hungary Upper Tisza
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Ireland Falcarragh to Min an Chladaigh
Ireland Inishsirrer, Inishmeane, Gola and Owey Islands
Ireland North west Connemara (Cleggan, Inishbofin, Inishturbot, Omey)
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone
Ireland Tory Island
Italy Belluno Dolomites
Italy Carniche Alps
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Italy Cividalese and upper Torre valley
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Middle valley of Tagliamento river
Italy Mount Grappa
Italy Orobie Alps and pre-Alps
Italy Tarvisio forest and Giulie pre-alps
Italy Valle del Torrente But
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Almaty State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kenya Masai Mara
Kenya Tsavo West National Park
Latvia Aiviekste flood-plain
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Burtnieks' meadows
Latvia Dubna flood-plain
Latvia Durbe lake meadows
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Lielupe flood-plain meadows
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Latvia Rakupe and Pace
Latvia Razna
Latvia Ruja flood-plain
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain
Latvia Sventaja valley
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Latvia Uzava lowland
Latvia Uzava meadows
Latvia Vidusburtnieks
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Liechtenstein Ruggeller Riet, Talgebiet
Lithuania Agricultural land near the Kalvarija settlement
Lithuania Birveta Fish-farm including segments of Dysna River and Birveta River valleys
Lithuania Dubysa River hereinafter Lyduvenai settlement & its valley
Lithuania Dysnai & Dysnykstis lake with adjacent territory
Lithuania Flooded meadows arround the Senoji & Naujoji Rusne lakes
Lithuania Jura & Sesuvis rivers and the lower reaches of Jura River
Lithuania Kamanos Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Meadows of Nemunas River valley between Raudone & Gelgaudiskis
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Segments of the Apse River valley
Lithuania Svyla River valley
Lithuania Valley of Minija River
Lithuania Valley of Nemunelis River
Lithuania Valley of Nevezis River
Lithuania Valley of Sirvinta River
Lithuania Valley of Venta River
Lithuania Valleys of the Erla & Salantas rivers
Lithuania Valleys of the Saltoja & Vyzuona rivers
Lithuania Wet meadows of Namunas River valley near Viesvile
Lithuania Zemaitija National Park
Luxembourg Region of the Middle Lias
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Alzette
Luxembourg Valley of the Ernze Blanche
Moldova Beech Land Forest
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Moldova Royal Forest
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Norway Jæren
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Barlinek Forest
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Calowanie Swamp
Poland Czarna River Valley
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Elblag Height
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Insko Site
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Kostrzyn River Valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Mircze Site
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Orawa and Nowy Targ Bogs
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Pasleka river valley
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Poprad Site
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Roztocze
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Sieniawa Forest
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Solokija River Valley
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Stolowe Mountains
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Tyszowce Site
Poland Upper Huczwa River Catchment
Poland Upper Labunka River Valley
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Romania Avrig - Scorei - Făgăraş
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc
Romania Bârnova woodland
Romania Bogata forest
Romania Câmpia Cermeiului
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului
Romania Ciuc Depression
Romania Comana
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre
Romania Cursul Mijlociu al Someşului
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Dumbrăviţa - Rotbav - Măgura Codlei
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Giurgeu Depression
Romania Iazurile de pe Văile Ibănesei - Başeului - Podrigăi
Romania Lunca Turului Inferior
Romania Macedonia forest
Romania Mândra wetlands
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Piatra Şoimului - Scorţeni - Gârleni
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Romania Râului Negru valley
Romania Timiş river flood-plain
Romania Trascău Mountains
Romania Vânători - Neamţ
Russia (Asian) Perovo lake
Russia (Asian) Sayanski canyon of the Enisey river
Russia (Central Asian) Anuyskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Beloye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bolchoe Kamyshnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Charyshskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tobol river between mouths of the Uya and Ubagan rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tobol river near Lebedevka and Bugrovoye villages
Russia (Central Asian) Ilmensky zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Kazanskaya flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Kileinoye bog
Russia (Central Asian) Krasnoschekovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Middle reaches of the Chulym river
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the Uy river
Russia (Central Asian) Natural reserve Kuznetskij Alatau
Russia (Central Asian) Oleni brooks
Russia (Central Asian) Pelymsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'ye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Sibirskaya anabranch (Irtysh flood-plain)
Russia (Central Asian) South spurs of Sylvinski range
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Tobolo-Kurtamyshskay flood land
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Berd' river
Russia (Central Asian) Visimsky zapovednik and vicinity
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Zaikovo forest
Russia (Central Asian) Zonalnay
Russia (European) Aiskiye yary
Russia (European) Akhmet-Skala ridge
Russia (European) Bereznyagovski forest
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Bryansko-Zhizdrinskoye woodland
Russia (European) Buninski forest
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest
Russia (European) Central Forest Biosphere Reserve and adjacent areas
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Desna flood-plain near Trubchevsk
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Russia (European) Druzhinnoe lake and its outskirts
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Alatyr' river in vicinity of Ardatov
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Iput' river in vicinity of Kholevichami
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Khoper river near Il'men' lake
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Klyaz'ma river from mouth of Teza river up to Mstera
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Lukh and Myt villages
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Myt and Mugreevo-Nikol'skoye villages
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Vachski district of North Novgorod region and adjacent areas of Vladimir region
Russia (European) Flood-plain of rivers Usta and Vaya in Urenski district
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Sura river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volkhov river
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ural and Kindeli rivers
Russia (European) Floodplains of the Unzha river near Kologriv
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Forests and bogs in the lower reaches of Bol'shaya Kaksha river
Russia (European) Forests and wetlands in the valley of the Nuzhma river
Russia (European) Gunibskoye plateau
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Ichalkovski
Russia (European) Ichalkovski forest
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Kaltasinski forest
Russia (European) Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kamsko-Yayvenski wetland
Russia (European) Karakulinskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Kargopol' area
Russia (European) Khoper Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Khrenovski forest
Russia (European) Kilemarski Reserve
Russia (European) Klyazminski reserve
Russia (European) Klyazminsko-Balakhninskaya lowland
Russia (European) Kologrivski forest
Russia (European) Krasnokamski forest
Russia (European) Kulikovski forest
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland
Russia (European) Kundryuchenskiye sands
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Lake Il'men and adjoining marshy plain
Russia (European) Lake Lacha
Russia (European) Manturovo left bank of the Unzha river
Russia (European) Marinskaya cuesta of Skalisti ridge
Russia (European) Moksha flood-plain in vicinity of Krasnoslobodsk
Russia (European) Moksha valley in vicinity of Temnikov
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Zilim river
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) North part of Volgogradski reservoir
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Okski Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Olonets plain
Russia (European) Pereluchski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Pikhtovka fishponds
Russia (European) Polesski Forest
Russia (European) Polisto-Lovatskaya mire system
Russia (European) Prisyun'ski forest
Russia (European) Racheyski forest
Russia (European) Rakovye lakes
Russia (European) Ravine of Eshkakon river
Russia (European) Redrovski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Samarskaya Luka
Russia (European) Semilovskoye forestry
Russia (European) Severo-donetskaya
Russia (European) Shilovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir
Russia (European) Smolenskoye Poozer'ye
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park
Russia (European) Sokolino-Kasplyanskaya area
Russia (European) Solotcha flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Sondugski Reserve and its outskirts
Russia (European) Sources of Kuma river
Russia (European) Sources of Kuna and Shisha rivers
Russia (European) Sources of Osuga river
Russia (European) Sources of the River Luga
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Tishskaya Dal' area
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest
Russia (European) Tul'skiye Zaseki forest
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (lake Verestovo)
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Valley complex of Moksha and Oka rivers
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river
Russia (European) Valley of Zhizdra river
Russia (European) Vedeneevsk pine forest
Russia (European) Vetluga floodplain in the Nizhni Novgorod region
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes
Russia (European) Voronezhski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Voroninski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Vorono-Khoperski area
Russia (European) Watershead of Atsvezh and Yuma rivers
Russia (European) Watershed between Sura and Barysh rivers
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers
Russia (European) Watershed of Tsna and Vysha rivers
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Russia (European) Zavoronezhski area
Russia (European) Zhigulevski Nature Reserve
Serbia Pester
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Vlasina
Slovakia Bukovské hills
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Slovakia Levocské hills
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovenia Breginjski Stol
Slovenia Dobrava - Jovsi
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Slovenia Planina polje
Slovenia Reka valley
South Africa Franklin Vlei
South Africa Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park
South Africa Kruger National Park and adjacent areas
South Africa KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Grasslands
South Africa Maloti Drakensberg Park
South Africa Umlalazi Nature Reserve
South Africa Umvoti Vlei
Sweden Dannemora
Sweden Lake Lim
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån
Tanzania Ugalla River Game Reserve
Ukraine Bakhtyn river valley
Ukraine Berezhnytsya river valley
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dereluj river valley
Ukraine Dniprodzerzhyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Gajchur river valley
Ukraine Gomol'shans'ka forest
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest
Ukraine Karachunivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Korostushevskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Male Polissya
Ukraine Meadows near Prociv village
Ukraine Mikulinetskie fish-ponds
Ukraine Mishuryn Rig
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Novograd-Volunskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Pischans'ke and Mogryts'ke forests
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Psel river valley (Sary village)
Ukraine Psel river valley near Komsomol's'k
Ukraine Radomyshl's'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Sejm river valley (Mutyn village)
Ukraine Sejm river valley (Vyrky village)
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Snake island
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Styr' river valley (Kolky village)
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Ukraine Tsybul'kivs'ki lakes
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Ukraine Ushomyrs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Uzh river valley
Ukraine Velika babka river valley
Ukraine Vyshnja river valley
Ukraine Yavoriv Military Training Centre
Ukraine Zakhidnyj Bug river valley
United Kingdom Coll (Corncrake)
United Kingdom Eoligarry, Barra
United Kingdom Iona
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs
United Kingdom Stornoway to Back, Lewis
United Kingdom Tiree (Corncrake)
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
United Kingdom West Coast, Lewis (Corncrake)
Uzbekistan Aksay Lake and surrounding desert
Zambia Chisamba
Zambia Hillwood
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Kafue National Park
Zambia Nkanga River Conservation Area
Zambia Nyika National Park (Zambia)
Zambia Shiwa Ng'andu
Zambia Uningi Pans

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations unset breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Crex crex. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/12/2019.