Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra


Taxonomic note

Emberiza calandra (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Miliaria following AERC TAC (2003); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); Dowsett & Forbes-Watson (1993); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,500,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 27,400,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 180000000-319999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.4 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 18,300,000-31,300,000 pairs, which equates to 36,700,000-62,600,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 183,500,000-313,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is declining markedly in north-west mainland Europe and less dramatically in central Europe owing to changing agricultural practices and climate change (Byers et al. 1995). In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.05) (EBCC 2015). There is no indication of a decline in the central Asian population however information is sparse (Madge and de Juana 2017).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Finland V Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India V Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania V Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
San Marino N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Slovenia Reka valley
Slovenia Karst
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Augustów forest
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Serifos island
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Thessaly plain
Greece Tyrnavos area
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Danube bend
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Los Rodeos-La Esperanza
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Molochna river valley
France Plateau de Valensole
United Kingdom Troup, Pennan and Lion Heads
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Piave river
Italy Taro river
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Vico lake
Italy Sila Grande
Italy Carso
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Czechia Pálava
Czechia Doupov hills
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Cer mountain
Serbia Valjevske mountains
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Kopaonik
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Serbia Resava gorge
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Meadows on the lower Ill
Germany Zerbster Land
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Herbsleben ponds
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Spreewald
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Orchard landscape between Hohenstaufen and Teck in the mid-Albvorland
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Rhine flats Altlußheim-Mannheim
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Vorderer Steigerwald - Windsheimer Bucht - Steigerwald-Vorland
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Jegricka
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Leninsk forest area
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Svishtov-Belene Lowland
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
France Montagne de la Serre
France Pointe de Grave
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Harsovska Reka
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Lobau
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Machland
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Slovenia Banjšice plateau
Slovenia Breginjski Stol and Planja
Malta Ta'Cenc cliffs
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Schönbuch with Spitzberg
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Vorland of the Mittlere Schwäbische Alb
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Farmlands Lich-Utphe
Germany Neckar oxbows in the Hessian Ried
Germany Retzower Heide
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Lower San River Valley
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Russia (European) Yamskaya steppe and adjacent technical reservoirs
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Emberiza calandra. Downloaded from on 05/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 05/12/2020.