Cone-billed Tanager Conothraupis mesoleuca


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A3c A3c; D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Endangered A3c
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2010 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2009 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 347,000 medium
Number of locations 3 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 poor estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: The population is assumed to be very small as the species avoided detection for so long. The total number of mature individuals was previously estimated at 50-249 (at least 50 in Emas National Park and up to 100 in Alto Rio Juruena, Mato Grosso). The species has since been recorded at more localities and the National Red List of Brazil estimated the population to number less than 1,000 mature individuals (MMA 2014). The population is therefore placed in the band of 250-999 mature individuals, with the largest subpopulation numbering 250-500.

Trend justification: Although very poorly known, outside of the protected areas in which it occurs this species's population is suspected to be decreasing owing to declines in habitat quality. An impending hydroelectric project planned for Bacia do Alto Juruena and involving the construction of five hydroelectric plants will flood the Juruena river area, which appears to be the global stronghold for the species, and could extinguish more than half of the total population in a short time (MMA 2014).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Parque Nacional das Emas
Brazil Alto Rio Juruena
Brazil Tirecatinga / Utiariti
Brazil Rio Claro

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Conothraupis mesoleuca. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/08/2020.