Common White Tern Gygis alba


Bell, R. S. 1912. Breeding Habits of White Tern (Gygis alba) on Kermadec Group. Emu - Austral Ornithology 12(1): 26-30.

Carlile, N. and Priddel, D. 2015. Establishment and growth of the White Tern Gygis alba population on Lord Howe Island, Australia. Marine Ornithology 43: 113-118.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Fitzgerald, B.M., Karl, B.J. and Veitch, C.R. 1991. The diet of feral cats (Felis catus) on Raoul Island, Kermadec Group. New Zealand Journal of Ecology.

Gochfeld, M., Burger, J., Christie, D.A. and Kirwan, G.M. 2018. Common White Tern (Gygis alba). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona Available at: (Accessed: 19.07.18).

Pitman, R.L.; Balance, L.T.; Bost, C. 2005. Clipperton Island: Pig sty, rat hole and booby prize. Marine Ornithology 33(2): 193-194.

Further resources

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Gygis alba. Downloaded from on 17/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/08/2022.