LC
Common White Tern Gygis alba



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 137,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 150,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.3 - - -

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) V Extant Yes
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant Yes
Cook Islands N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories U Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kiribati N Extant Yes
Madagascar U Extant
Maldives N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mauritius N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Nauru N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Niue (to New Zealand) N Extant Yes
Norfolk Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines U Extant
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant Yes
Samoa N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste U Extant
Tokelau (to New Zealand) N Extant Yes
Tonga N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Tuvalu N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
American Samoa National Park of American Samoa - Tutuila
American Samoa Swain's Atoll
American Samoa Swain's Atoll Marine
American Samoa Tutuila Marine
American Samoa West Tutuila
Brazil Trindade e Martim Vaz
Fiji Nukubasaga & Nukupureti
Fiji Ringgold Islands
Fiji Ringgold Islands Marine
French Polynesia Anuanuraro
French Polynesia Moruroa
French Polynesia Moruroa Marine
French Polynesia Motane (Mohotani)
French Polynesia Motu de l'ouest et du sud de Rangiroa
French Polynesia Niau
French Polynesia Niau Marine
French Polynesia Rangiroa Marine
French Polynesia Reitoru
French Polynesia Tikehau
French Polynesia Tikehau Marine
Kiribati Millenium (Caroline) Island
Kiribati Millenium (Caroline) Island Marine
Kiribati Teraina (Washington Island)
Kiribati Teraina Marine
Mauritius Cargados Carajos Shoals
Micronesia, Federated States of Chuuk Atoll Marine
Micronesia, Federated States of Kosrae Marine
Micronesia, Federated States of Pohnpei Marine
Micronesia, Federated States of Yap Island
Micronesia, Federated States of Yap Island Marine
Palau Fana Island
Palau Fana Island Marine
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Ducie Island
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Henderson Island
Seychelles Aride Island Special Reserve
Seychelles Cousin Island Special Reserve
Seychelles Cousine island
Seychelles Frégate island
Seychelles Marie-Louise Island
St Helena (to UK) Boatswainbird Island
St Helena (to UK) Green Mountain
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Atafu
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Nukunonu
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Tokelau Marine
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Futuna
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Futuna Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Gygis alba. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017.