LC
Common Tern Sterna hirundo



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group is aware that phylogenetic analyses have been published which have proposed generic rearrangements which may affect this species, but prefers to wait until work by other taxonomists reveals how these changes affect the entire groups involved.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 139.0 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 112,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 190,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.1,600,000-3,600,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 316,000-605,000 breeding pairs (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is unclear. Some populations may be stable, while others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, the species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years (-70.4% decline over 40 years, equating to a -26.2% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe, the population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) V Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros V Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Cook Islands V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi V Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mauritius N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand V Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Paraguay V Extant Yes
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Anguilla (to UK) Cove Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Grey Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Long Salt Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Rendezvous Bay Pond
Anguilla (to UK) West End Pond
Aruba (to Netherlands) Oranjestad Reef Islands
Aruba (to Netherlands) San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Bahamas Great Inagua
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Belgium Voorhaven Zeebrugge and Baai van Heist
Belgium Zwin
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Pelkermeer Saltworks, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire
Brazil Mangue Seco
Brazil Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Bulgaria Srebarna
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Banc de Carleton
Canada Cascumpec Bay/Alberton Harbour
Canada Cayes à Meck
Canada Dog Lake
Canada Dory's Reef
Canada Gull and Sandhill Island
Canada Île a Calculot
Canada Île Paquet
Canada Îles aux Perroquets
Canada Îlot C
Canada Kaweenakumik Lake
Canada Kouchibouguac NP Sand Islands
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Lake St. Martin Islands
Canada Leslie Street Spit
Canada Limestone Islands
Canada Little George Island
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Louis Island and Associated Reefs
Canada Machias Seal Island
Canada Niagara River Corridor
Canada Port Colborne (breakwater and mainland)
Canada Riverton Sandy Bar
Canada Sable Island, Nova Scotia
Canada Tabusintac Lagoon and River Estuary
China (mainland) Aksu River basin
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Croatia North Part of Zadar Archipelago
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Croatia Sava River Near Hruscica
Croatia Upper Drava River
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Buskabaai, Curaçao
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Jan Thiel Lagoon, Curaçao
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Malpais-St Michiel
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Sint Jorisbaai-Koraal Tabak, Curaçao
Czechia Ceskobudejovicke rybniky ponds
Czechia Dehtár pond
Czechia Nove Mlyny middle reservoir
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Denmark Hirsholmene
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Vaindloo island
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Basse vallée du Var
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Camargue
France Cap Gris-nez
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Iles Chausey
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Ilôts de Trévorc'h
France Littoral Augeron
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Ammersee
Germany Carmzower Mühlensee
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Federseeried
Germany Goldgrund and Daxlander Au
Germany Gravel pits Krauchenwies-Zielfingen
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Lower Saxonian North Sea off the East Frisian Islands
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Märkische Schweiz
Germany Mechtersheim clay pit
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Ghana Densu Delta Ramsar Site and vicinity
Ghana Muni-Pomadze Ramsar Site
Ghana Songor Ramsar Site
Guyana Shell Beach
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Ireland Connemara Islands
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Rockabill
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari
Italy Venice lagoon
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Lithuania A part of the Vasaknos fish-farm
Lithuania Kalviai gravel pit
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Unnamed islands at Niedus Lake with surrounding waters
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Mozambique Bazaruto Archipelago
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Namibia Walvis Bay
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Workumerwaard
Oman Barr al Hikman
Philippines Manila Bay
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland Turek Site
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Warta River Mouth
Portugal Contendas
Portugal Costa das Flores
Portugal Costa do Corvo
Portugal Ilhéu da Praia
Portugal Ilhéu da Vila
Portugal Ilhéu do Topo e Costa Adjacente
Portugal Ponta de São Lourenço
Portugal Porto Santo Oeste
Portugal Serra Branca
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Black Sea
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Comana
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Lake Gălăţui
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) Selenga delta
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity)
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Saltosarayskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Slovakia Dubnica gravel pit
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Morava
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Slovakia Slnava
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
Slovenia Spodnja Sava
South Africa Orange River Mouth Wetlands
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
Spain Aguas y acantilados del Norte de La Palma
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Ebro delta
Spain El Roque coastal cliffs
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Spain Salmor rocky islets
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain South-west coast of La Gomera
Spain Tabarca - Cabo de Palos
Spain Vallehermoso coast
St Barthelemy (to France) Îlets les Petits Saints et Gros Islets
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Thailand Na Muang Krabi
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkmenistan Ogurjaly island
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) East Caicos and adjacent areas
Ukraine Bilosarajs'ka peninsula
Ukraine Elanchyk river valley
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Kuyal'nyts'kyj lyman
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
USA Great Gull Island
USA Isles of Shoals
Venezuela Parque Nacional Archipiélago Los Roques

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Non-trivial Historical
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Sterna hirundo. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/11/2019.