Common Tern Sterna hirundo


Taxonomic note
The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group is aware that phylogenetic analyses have been published which have proposed generic rearrangements which may affect this species, but prefers to wait until work by other taxonomists reveals how these changes affect the entire groups involved.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 139 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 112,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 190,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.1,600,000-3,600,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 316,000-605,000 breeding pairs (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is unclear. Some populations may be stable, while others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, the species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years (-70.4% decline over 40 years, equating to a -26.2% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe, the population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) V Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros V Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Cook Islands V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi V Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mauritius N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand V Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Paraguay V Extant Yes
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Nove Mlyny middle reservoir
Czechia Rezabinec pond
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bardaca
Portugal Ponta de São Lourenço
Portugal Ilhéus do Porto Santo
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Glynanyi island
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Lake Kasonys and adjacent wetlands
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Lithuania Zaltytis
Lithuania Varduva River and Varduva Reservoir
Lithuania Islauzas fish-ponds
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Relict lakes of southern Saaremaa
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Pape
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Ireland Rockabill
Ireland North Wicklow coastal marshes
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland Ballycotton, Ballynamona and Shanagarry
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Connemara Islands
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Roaninish
Ireland Inishkeeragh and Illancrone
Ireland Inishbofin, Inisdooey and Inisbeg
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Lough Derg (River Shannon)
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Belgium Zwin
Belgium Westkust
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Bay of Svensksund
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Insko Site
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Oswin site
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece River Axios
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Workumerwaard
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Lake Pihlajavesi
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Outokumpu and Kaavi oligotrophic lakes
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Inner Somogy
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Valaamski archipelago
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) South-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Russia (European) Salt lakes in the Primorsko-Akhtarsk area
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Danilovskoe marshes
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Spain South-west coast of La Gomera
Spain Vallehermoso coast
Spain Garafía rocky islets
Spain El Roque coastal cliffs
Spain Western coast of El Hierro
Spain Salmor rocky islets
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Bilosarajs'ka peninsula
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Berdyans'ka peninsula
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Teterivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Elanchyk river valley
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Korostushevskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Radomyshl's'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Solonyj Lyman lake
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Iles Chausey
France Archipel des Sept-Iles
France Ile de Goulmedec
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Ilôts de Trévorc'h
France Archipel de Molène
France Archipel des Glénan
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Détroit de Bonifaccio et Iles Lavezzi
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etang du Bagnas
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Basse vallée du Var
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Havre de la Sienne
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Littoral Augeron
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang des Landes
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Cap Gris-nez
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cape Wrath
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Copinsay
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Handa
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Machrihanish
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mingulay and Berneray
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Mousa
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Treshnish Isles
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Canna and Sanday
United Kingdom Eilean nan Ron
United Kingdom Gigha Island and Islets
United Kingdom Horse Island
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula
Italy Maddalena archipelago and Cape Ferro
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Taro river
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Torrile LIPU reserve
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Czechia Dehtár pond
Greece Tokmakia islets, Lesvos
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands)
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Harboøre Tange, Plet Enge & Gjeller Sø
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Maribo lakes
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Hirsholmene
Denmark Nordre Rønner
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Arreskov Sø
Denmark Forests near Brahetrolleborg
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Slovakia Horná Orava
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Italy Trebbia river (lower course)
Denmark Marstal Bugt and the coast of south-west Langeland
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Sweden Tärnan – Riala
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Ammersee
Germany Federseeried
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany East- and south-east coast of Fehmarn
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Spreewald
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Schlei
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Märkische Schweiz
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Rhein: Greffern-Murgmündung-Neuburgweier
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Northern Karlsruhe Hardt
Germany Lake Überlingen of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Norway Lake Vansjø
Belgium Voorhaven Zeebrugge and Baai van Heist
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Montenegro Ulcinj saltpans
Ghana Densu Delta Ramsar Site and vicinity
Ghana Muni-Pomadze Ramsar Site
Ghana Songor Ramsar Site
Madagascar Baly Bay National Park
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mozambique Greater Bazaruto
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park
Namibia Walvis Bay
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Senegal Delta du Saloum
South Africa Orange River Mouth Wetlands
South Africa Richards Bay Game Reserve
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Ukraine Kuyal'nyts'kyj lyman
Turkey Ağrı Plain
Turkey Saros Bay
Turkey Bakırçay Delta
Oman Barr al Hikman
Venezuela Parque Nacional Archipiélago Los Roques
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Thailand Na Muang Krabi
Philippines Manila Bay
Mongolia Khar Lake
Russia (Asian) Selenga delta
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Vaindloo island
Estonia Sutu bay
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (European) Shabel'skaya sand-spit
Russia (Central Asian) Gorkye Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Czechia Ceskobudejovicke rybniky ponds
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Manjas Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tishki Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Achlikul' Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Greater Shantarkai Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Kadkul', Alabuga and Tirikul' Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Gorbunnoe and Solenoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Cher'omukhovo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Aiviekste flood-plain
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Zvarde forest
Latvia Augstroze
Latvia Piejura
Latvia Randu meadows
Latvia Razna
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Portugal Porto Santo Oeste
Portugal Ilhéu da Praia
Portugal Serra Branca
Portugal Costa das Flores
Portugal Costa do Corvo
Portugal Ilhéu do Topo e Costa Adjacente
Portugal Contendas
Portugal Ilhéu da Vila
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Pointe de Grave
France Rade de Lorient
France Cap Fagnet
France Etang de Lindre
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Iles d'Hyères
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Bonne Anse
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de L'Ile Vieille
France Plaine du Forez
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) East Caicos and adjacent areas
Bermuda (to UK) Cooper's Island and Castle Islands
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between Gorodets and N.Novgorod
Russia (European) Marshes near villages Frolishchi and Chistoye
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between N.Novgorod and Pamyat' Parizhskoi Kommuny village
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Marshes near Pavlovskoye Zaoch'ye and adjoining floodplain of Oka river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Vachski district of North Novgorod region and adjacent areas of Vladimir region
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Navashinski district
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity)
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Okski Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Russia (Central Asian) Belozerskaya flood-plain of river Tobol
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Varnavinski zakaznik
Russia (European) Forests, bogs and gathering of the Common Cranes near Voskresenskoye village
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Forests and wetlands in the valley of the Nuzhma river
Russia (European) Floodplain of Oka river up-stream of the Murom
Russia (European) Peat pits in Volodarski and Balakhninski districts
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river between the mouth of Klyaz'ma river and Dzerzhinsk
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Butash and Gor'koye lakes
Canada St. Mary Reservoir
Canada Lake Newell and Kitsim Reservoir
Canada Muriel Lake
Canada Utikuma and Utikumasis Lakes
Canada Hay and Zama Lakes
Canada Peace-Athabasca Delta
Canada Lesser Slave Lake PP
Canada Lakeland
Canada Pakowki Lake
Canada Eagle, Namaka and Stobart Lakes
Canada Frank Lake (south)
Canada Lac La Biche
Canada Gull and Sandhill Island
Canada Kaweenakumik Lake
Canada Dog Lake
Canada Duck Island
Canada North, West, and East Shoal Lakes
Canada Little George Island
Canada Dory's Reef
Canada Kasakeemeemisekak Islands
Canada Lake St. Martin Islands
Canada Louis Island and Associated Reefs
Canada Riverton Sandy Bar
Canada Sand Reef Islands
Canada Spruce Island Reef
Canada Tabusintac Lagoon and River Estuary
Canada Kouchibouguac NP Sand Islands
Canada Buctouche Bar
Canada Neguac Sandspit
Canada Machias Seal Island
Canada Green Island
Canada Sable Island, Nova Scotia
Canada Country Island Complex
Canada North Arm, Great Slave Lake
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Niagara River Corridor
Canada Point Pelee
Canada St. Mary's River Complex (Echo Bay ON to Maxton Bay MI)
Canada Port Colborne (breakwater and mainland)
Canada Hamilton Harbour Waterbird Colonies
Canada Leslie Street Spit
Canada Lower Detroit River
Canada Limestone Islands
Canada Lac Deschênes
Canada Hannah Bay
Canada Cascumpec Bay/Alberton Harbour
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Plages de La Martinique et de Havre-Aubert
Canada Île Brion
Canada Île de l'Est
Canada Île Paquet
Canada Îlot C
Canada Banc de Carleton
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Cayes à Meck
Canada Île Nue de Mingan
Canada Baie Comeau
Canada Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes
Canada Le Pilier de Pierre
Canada Réserve nationale de faune des Îles-de-Contrecoeur
Canada Île Deslauriers
Canada Île de la Couvée
Canada Barrage de Beauharnois
Canada Île a Calculot
Canada Canal de Beauharnois
Canada Old Wives-Frederick Lakes
Canada Paysen/Kettlehut Lake
Canada Primrose Lake
Canada Suggi Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormoz island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Lithuania A part of the Vasaknos fish-farm
Oman Musandam islands
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Khawr Hassan
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Bulgaria Emine
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
Italy Po Delta
Austria Neusiedler See
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Bahamas Great Inagua
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Aruba (to Netherlands) San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Klein Bonaire, Bonaire
Aruba (to Netherlands) Oranjestad Reef Islands
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Pelkermeer Saltworks, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire
Turkmenistan Ogurjaly island
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
United Kingdom Sleibhtean Agus Chladach Thiriodh
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom Breydon Water
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Buskabaai, Curaçao
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Anguilla (to UK) Scrub Island
Sweden Lomma Bight
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Sweden Lake Lim
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Sweden Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Poland Barycz river valley
Anguilla (to UK) Cove Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Long Salt Pond
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Sint Jorisbaai-Koraal Tabak, Curaçao
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Pasleka river valley
Italy Ticino river
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Jan Thiel Lagoon, Curaçao
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Rogalin Site
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Mirachowo Forest
Poland Pilica River Valley
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Poland Kozienicka Forest
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Dobskie Lake
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Poland Kostrzyn River Valley
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Podedworze Reservoir
Poland Polesie
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Upper Huczwa River Catchment
Poland Solokija River Valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Slonne Mountains
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Malpais-St Michiel
St Barthelemy (to France) Îlets les Petits Saints et Gros Islets
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Turkmenistan Mergen
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Brazil Mangue Seco
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Netherlands Oostzanerveld
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Netherlands Grevelingen
Brazil Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Slovenia River Drava
Turkey Gediz Delta
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Slovakia Morava
Croatia North Part of Zadar Archipelago
Croatia Upper Drava River
Croatia Sava River Near Hruscica
Slovakia Danube floodplains
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
Slovakia Dubnica gravel pit
Slovakia SÍňava
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Nuuksio
Russia (Central Asian) Saltosarayskoye lake
Italy Casaraccio pool, Stintino saltpans and Pilo pool
Italy Bassa Parmense
Guyana North-west Coastline
Canada Îles aux Perroquets
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Palmas Gulf wetlands
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland, Oostzanerveld & Twiske
Russia (European) Kazachka
USA Great Gull Island
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Thülsfeld reservoir
Germany Konstanzer Bucht of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Breeser See
Germany Einswarder Plate / Tegeler Plate
Germany Lower Saxonian North Sea off the East Frisian Islands
Germany Carmzower Mühlensee
Germany Lausitz mining areas
Germany Danube valley Scheer-Zwiefaltendorf
Germany Gravel pits Krauchenwies-Zielfingen
Germany Danube valley between Neuburg and Ingolstadt
Germany Bodanrück and Mindelsee
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Rhine flats between mouth of Rench and mouth of Murg
Germany Rhine flats Elchesheim-Karlsruhe
Germany Pfrunger and Burgweiler Ried
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Nuthe - Nieplitz lowlands
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Mechtersheim clay pit
Germany Goldgrund and Daxlander Au
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Ireland Lough Mask
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Comana
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Romania Lake Gălăţui
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Black Sea
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom The Wash
Poland Turek Site
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Denmark Furesø and Farum Sø
Denmark Ramsø Mose
Denmark Ribe Holme and meadows at Kongeåen
Denmark Saltbæk Vig
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Tystrup-Bavelse Søerne
Lithuania Kalviai gravel pit
Lithuania Unnamed islands at Niedus Lake with surrounding waters
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Kamien Lagoon and Dziwna River
Poland Barlinek Forest
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Calowanie Swamp
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Roztocze
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Sola River Valley
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Sredzka Struga and Maskawa River Valley
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Aksu River basin
Slovenia Spodnja Sava
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Aguas y acantilados del Norte de La Palma
Spain Tabarca - Cabo de Palos
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Brazil Mangue Seco - Marine
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast - Marine
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Caicos Bank Southern Cays / East Caicos and adjacent areas / Turks Bank Seabird Cays - Marine
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake - Marine
Senegal Delta du Saloum - Marine
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park - Marine
Canada Tabusintac Lagoon & River Estuary - Marine
Canada Kouchibouguac NP Sand Islands - Marine
Canada Sable Island, Nova Scotia - Marine
Canada Malpeque Bay / Cascumpec Bay/Alberton Harbour - Marine
Canada Baie de Gaspé / Bonaventure Island / Île Bonaventure / Péninsule de Forillon - Marine
Canada Île Paquet / Îlot C / Rocher Le Corps Mort - Marine
Canada Île Brion / Île Paquet - Marine
Canada Banc de Carleton - Marine
Canada Île a Calculot - Marine
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Jan Thiel Lagoon, Curaçao - Marine
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Pelkermeer Saltworks, Bonaire - Marine
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Avila / Villa Clara's Central-Eastern Cays - Marine
Bahamas Great Inagua - Marine
Anguilla (to UK) Sombrero / Scrub Island / Saba coastline / Dog Island / Îlets les Petits Saints et Gros Islets - Marine
Aruba (to Netherlands) Oranjestad Reef Islands / San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands - Marine
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Sint Jorisbaai-Koraal Tabak, Curaçao - Marine
Philippines Manila Bay - Marine
Colombia Complejo de Humedales Costeros de la Guajira
USA Isles of Shoals
Papua New Guinea Southern New Ireland Marine
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park
Anguilla (to UK) West End Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Rendezvous Bay Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Grey Pond
Portugal Corvo e Flores
Portugal Faial
Portugal Pico - Norte
Portugal São Jorge - Oeste
Portugal São Jorge - Nordeste
Portugal Graciosa
Portugal Terceira
Portugal São Miguel - Sul
Portugal Santa Maria
Portugal Desertas
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
Norway Froan
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Tunisia Salines de Thyna
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Koorunõmme
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Vooremaa
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Estonia Haanja
Senegal Northern Senegal shelf break
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break (south)
Morocco Canary current shelf-break (north)
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Delta Coast
Argentina Cabo San Antonio
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Meelva bog
Estonia Misso
United Arab Emirates Alqurm Wa Lehfeiyah (Khor Kalba)
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Sweden Lake Tåkern
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
China (mainland) Rudong coast
Sweden Lake Storhjälmaren
Serbia Donje Podrinje
Serbia Donje Pomoravlje
Serbia Gornje Pomoravlje
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Serbia Taloznik secerane Kovin
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Netherlands Mainland Coast
Portugal Ilhéu das Cabras
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Portugal Lajes do Pico
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Velipoja
Albania Patoku lagoon
Albania Lake Butrinti
Albania Lake Mikri Prespa
Argentina Bahía Samborombón

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Sterna hirundo. Downloaded from on 22/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/05/2022.