Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 38,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 33,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 150000000 poor estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 150,000,000 mature individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2017). The population in Europe, which forms approximately 55% of the global range, is estimated at 28,800,000-52,400,000 pairs, equating to 57,700,000-105,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: In Europe, the population has been undergoing a moderate decline between 1980 and 2015 (EBCC 2018). Likewise, the introduced population in North America has declined between 1970 and 2014 (51% decline between 1966 and 2015 based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey [Sauer et al. 2017]). Therefore, the global population is tentatively assessed as being in decline.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Argentina I Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) I Extant
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas I Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) I Extant Yes
Bhutan V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada I Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) I Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba I Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Dominican Republic I Extant
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Fiji I Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Haiti I Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica I Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mexico I Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) I Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea V Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) I Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand V Extant
Tonga I Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) I Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vanuatu V Extant
Vietnam V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) I Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Sweden Sandemar
Poland Pisz forest
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Spain Los Rodeos-La Esperanza
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
France Marais de Sacy
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Colfiorito
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Lista wetland system
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Unterlammer hill country
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Wendesser moor
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Federseeried
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park
Canada Marais de Saint-Timothée
Canada Marais de Saint-Étienne
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Machland
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Freiwald
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Germany Lengeder Teichgebiet
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Sturnus vulgaris. Downloaded from on 03/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/02/2023.