Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency low
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 38,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 33,200,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 150000000 poor estimated 2008
Population trend decreasing suspected -
Generation length (years) 4.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 150,000,000 mature individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2017). The population in Europe, which forms approximately 55% of the global range, is estimated at 28,800,000-52,400,000 pairs, equating to 57,700,000-105,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: In Europe, the population has been undergoing a moderate decline between 1980 and 2015 (EBCC 2018). Likewise, the introduced population in North America has declined between 1970 and 2014 (51% decline between 1966 and 2015 based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey [Sauer et al. 2017]). Therefore, the global population is tentatively assessed as being in decline.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant native
Argentina extant introduced
Armenia extant native yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) extant introduced
Australia extant introduced yes
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahamas extant introduced
Bahrain extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bermuda (to UK) extant introduced yes
Bhutan extant vagrant
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Bulgaria extant native yes
Canada extant introduced yes
Cape Verde extant vagrant
Cayman Islands (to UK) extant introduced
China (mainland) extant native yes
Croatia extant native yes
Cuba extant introduced
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes yes
Dominican Republic extant introduced
Egypt extant native
Estonia extant native yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native yes
Fiji extant introduced yes
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Greenland (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Haiti extant introduced
Hong Kong (China) extant native
Hungary extant native yes
Iceland extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant native
Italy extant native yes
Jamaica extant introduced
Japan extant native
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kuwait extant native yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes yes
Libya extant native
Liechtenstein extant native yes
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Maldives extant vagrant
Malta extant native yes
Mexico extant introduced
Moldova extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Morocco extant native
Myanmar extant vagrant
Nepal extant native
Netherlands extant native yes
New Zealand extant introduced yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant native yes yes
Oman extant native yes
Palestine extant native yes
Panama extant vagrant
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant introduced
Qatar extant native yes
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Serbia extant native yes
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
South Korea extant vagrant
Spain extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant introduced yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) extant vagrant
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant native yes yes
Taiwan, China extant vagrant
Tajikistan extant native yes
Thailand extant vagrant
Tonga extant introduced yes
Tunisia extant native
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) extant introduced
Ukraine extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
USA extant introduced yes
Uzbekistan extant native yes
Vanuatu extant vagrant
Vietnam extant vagrant
Virgin Islands (to USA) extant introduced
Yemen extant vagrant yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Sturnus vulgaris. Downloaded from on 26/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/09/2023.