Common Quail Coturnix coturnix


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 87,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 64,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 15000000-35000000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 3,320,000-6,720,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 6,630,000-13,400,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 40% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 16,575,000-33,500,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 15,000,000-35,000,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species is declining owing to netting of migrating birds. Local declines may be caused by changing agricultural practices, especially increased use of pesticides (del Hoyo et al. 1994). In Europe the population size is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius I Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) I Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Karayazi forest
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Belarus Sporovo
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Valley of Sirvinta River
Liechtenstein Ruggeller Riet, Talgebiet
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Slovenia Planina polje
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Slovenia Reka valley
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Goričko
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Belgium Mechelse Heide en de Vallei van de Ziepbeek
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Dannemora
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Nietlice marshes
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Kesznyéten
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Hungary Inner Somogy
Hungary Tápió valley
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Khoper river near Il'men' lake
Russia (European) Sources of Osuga river
Russia (European) Siniye mountains
Russia (European) Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kletnyanski forest
Russia (European) Insaro-Kovylkinski
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain La Cabrera mountain range
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Cerrato high moor
Spain Alcarria de Alcalá steppes
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Bilogir'ya
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Bakhtyn river valley
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
Ukraine Psel river valley (Sary village)
France Vallée du Fouzon
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Piave river
Italy Taro river
Italy Laga mountains
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Cicolano
Italy Sila Grande
Italy Selva del Lamone
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Sentina
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Doupov hills
Sweden Lake Östen
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Fruska gora
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Cer mountain
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Kopaonik
Serbia Prokletije
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Veľká Fatra
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Riečnica
Slovakia Bukovské hills
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Spišská Magura
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Vlasina
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Zlot gorge--Dubasnica
Serbia Resava gorge
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Andorra Pirineo de Andorra
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Machland
Austria Freiwald
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Unterlammer hill country
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Meadows on the lower Ill
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Heideboden
Germany Zerbster Land
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Spreewald
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Recker Moor/ Düsterdieker Niederung/ Seester Feld
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Dümmer
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Fehntjer Tief
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Germany Wümmewiesen near Fischerhude
Germany Wendesser moor
Germany Georgsdorfer swamp
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Northern Wetterau
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Heidmoor lowlands
Russia (European) Bryansko-Zhizdrinskoye woodland
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Bolchoe Kamyshnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Krasilovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the Uy river
Russia (Central Asian) Kisluhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Natural reserve Kuznetskij Alatau
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Parshivye mountains
Russia (Central Asian) Kazanskaya flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Maly Sungul' Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Karazjukski complex of marshes and lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Emine
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Marais de Manteyer
France Basses Vallées Angevines
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Kilemarski Reserve
Russia (European) Semilovskoye forestry
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (Central Asian) Tri Gusikhi
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Zlatiata
Bulgaria Rayanovtsi
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Turkmenistan Dushakerekdag
Austria Lobau
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Rhaetian Alps
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Sources of Kuna and Shisha rivers
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Slovenia Banjšice plateau
Slovenia Breginjski Stol and Planja
Slovenia Kozjansko - Jovsi
Italy Sibillini mountains
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ural and Kindeli rivers
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers
Russia (European) Pis'myanskiye Gori area
Russia (European) Snake hills
Russia (European) Vicinity of Poltavka village
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Engdener Wüste
Germany Tinner Dose and Staverner Dose
Germany Lucie and Landwehr
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Leeg-, Melm- and Kuhdammoor
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Eschebrügger Wösten
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Mittleres Wietingsmoor
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Großes Moor near Gifhorn
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Baar
Germany Wetterau
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Oldenburger Graben and Wesseker See
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Retzower Heide
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Warder See
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Luxembourg Valley of the Woltz
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Alzette
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Region of the Middle Lias
Luxembourg Region of Junglinster
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Niepolomice forest
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Estonia Lahemaa
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Coturnix coturnix. Downloaded from on 07/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 07/08/2022.