VU
Common Pochard Aythya ferina



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2ab+3b+4ab

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Vulnerable A2ab+3b+4ab
2016 Vulnerable A2ab+3b+4ab
2015 Vulnerable A2ab+3b+4ab
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 823 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 548,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 87,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 1,950,000-2,250,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 22.8 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). In winter, the population size in Europe is estimated to be decreasing at the same rate. Europe holds between 35% (breeding) and 40% (wintering) of the global population, so these declines are significant. The flyway population breeding in western Siberia and wintering in south-west Asia also appears to be declining, although this may at least partly reflect recent variation in monitoring effort (Nagy et al. 2014). No recent information is available about the sizes or trends of the two other flyway populations, which breed in central Asia and winter in south and east Asia, respectively (Wetlands International 2012), and which together are thought to comprise around one third of the global population. Populations in Bangladesh (S. Chowdhury in litt. 2015), Japan (K. Ushiyama in litt. 2015) and South Korea (N. Moores in litt. 2015) are reported to be decreasing. Population declines have not been observed in China (M. Ming in litt. 2015) or Mongolia (S. Gombobaatar in litt. 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Chad V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Congo V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania V Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
North Macedonia Lake Ohrid
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Lithuania Lake Kasonys and adjacent wetlands
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone
Lithuania Zaltytis
Lithuania Islauzas fish-ponds
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Käina bay
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Babite lake
Latvia Pape
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Bulgaria Orsoya Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Comana
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Lake Tataru
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Blahniţa
Ireland Lough Derravaragh
Ireland Lough Iron and Glen Lough
Ireland Lough Owel
Ireland Lough Ennell
Ireland Lough Corrib
Ireland Lough Conn and Lough Cullin (including Moy valley)
Ireland Lough Gara
Ireland Lough Gill
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Lough Fern
Ireland Lough Kinale and Lough Derragh
Ireland Lough Sheelin
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia River Drava
Belgium De Dijlevallei
Belgium Kalmthoutse Heide
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Büyükçekmece Lake
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Işıklı Lake
Turkey Bafa Lake
Turkey Çorak Lake
Turkey Burdur Lake
Turkey Eğirdir Lake
Turkey Sapanca Lake
Turkey Hirfanlı Reservoir
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Beyşehir Lake
Turkey Akyatan Lake
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Kävsjön – Store Mosse
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Nietlice marshes
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Evros delta
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lake Doïrani
Greece Lakes Trichonis and Lysimachia
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Westplaat
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Hollands Diep
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Markiezaat
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Zwarte Meer
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Netherlands Lake Wolderwijd
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer
Netherlands IJssel: Deventer - Zwolle
Netherlands IJssel: Zwolle - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp
Netherlands Lake Fluessen, Vogelhoek and Morra
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Netherlands Naardermeer
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Öreg Lake of Tata
Hungary Lake Balaton
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Kesznyéten
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Kupy area
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Valley complex of Moksha and Oka rivers
Russia (European) Burukshunskiye limans
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Cheremshanski Bay of Kuybyshev Reservoir
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Spain Tormos reservoir (La Sotonera)
Spain Cinco Villas ponds
Spain Sariñena lake and La Estación pond
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Pedro Muñoz-Manjavacas endorreic lagoons
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Sasyk lake
Ukraine River Danube
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Berdyans'ka peninsula
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Teterivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Kytaj lake
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Dgulyn lake
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Ingul river valley
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands)
Ukraine Mikulinetskie fish-ponds
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Forêts du Perche
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Boucle de Moisson
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etang et Forêt de Villefermoy
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etang des Landes
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Marais de Sacy
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Gorges de la Truyère
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Alvie
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cameron Reservoir
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Castle Loch, Lochmaben
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Flanders Moss and Lake of Menteith
United Kingdom Gladhouse Reservoir
United Kingdom Greenlaw Moor
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Hornsea Mere
United Kingdom Din Moss and Hoselaw Loch
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Loch Ken and Dee Marshes
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Kinnordy
United Kingdom Loch of Lintrathen
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Oire
United Kingdom Loch Spynie
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Muir of Dinnet
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Westwater Reservoir
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
Italy Le Cesine
Italy Lakes Lesina and Varano
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Vico lake
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Vincheto di Cellarda
Italy Po Delta
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Laga mountains
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Rieti lakes
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Lake Viverone
Italy Lake Garda
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Albania Lake Butrinti
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Czechia Zehunský rybník pond
Czechia Poodri
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Black Sea
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Denmark Maribo lakes
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Forests near Brahetrolleborg
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Guldborgsund
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Slovakia Slnava
Serbia Labudovo okno
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Norway Vorma
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Lista wetland system
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Switzerland River Rhone: Geneva to Verbois reservoir
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: Corcelettes-Vaumarcus
Switzerland End of Lake Constance and river Rhine until Bibermühle
Switzerland Lake Constance: Bay of Ermatingen
Switzerland Lake Constance: Bay of Constance
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Versoix and Hermance to Geneva
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Rolle to Céligny
Poland Puck Bay
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Lewitz
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Charlottenhofer Weihergebiet and Hirtlohweiher
Germany Konstanzer Bucht of Lake Constance
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Rhein: Greffern-Murgmündung-Neuburgweier
Germany Hördter Rheinaue
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Niers valley
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ammersee
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Alfsee
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Dümmer
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Riddagshäuser Teiche
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Selenter See
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Federseeried
Germany Obersee: Schachener Bucht
Germany Gladenbach mountains east of Herborn
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Reichlos pond
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Lake Überlingen of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Breisach - Sasbach with Limberg
Germany Rhine flats Haltingen - Neuenburg and foothills
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Belgium Grensmaas
Belgium Mechels Rivierengebied, Antwerpen
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Algeria Lac Oubeïra
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Plinksiai state Nature Reserve and its environs
Ukraine Mishuryn Rig
Portugal Pera marsh
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Iraq Tharthar Lake and Al-Dhebaeji Fields
Iraq Samara Wetlands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Russia (European) Morkushskoye reservoir
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Japan Lake Biwako
Japan Lake Nakaumi
Japan Lake Hamanako, Enshunada
Japan Asai-shinden fishpond
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Pakistan Mangla Lake
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake
Pakistan Phoosna Wetlands Complex
Pakistan Rasool Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
South Korea Han-gang river
India Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands
India Patna Bird Sanctuary
Bangladesh Aila Beel
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Junam reservoir
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes)
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye lake near Karas'ye village
Russia (Central Asian) Bog Mamynkul and lake Alakul
Russia (Central Asian) Mamontovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Gorkye Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the Uy river
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Travykul' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shiye and Maliye Donki lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Sahil settlement - Shelf factory
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Russia (Central Asian) Sibirskiye Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Myrkaj Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tishki Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Utich Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Alekaj Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Terenkul' and Gagar'e Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Butash and Gor'koye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'ko-Solenoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koe Lake near village Lyskovo
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Kadkul', Alabuga and Tirikul' Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Presnoe and Okunevskoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kyzil-Chilik valley
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Russia (European) Lower Uvod' river
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Russia (European) Valdajskoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kazanskaya flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Pesochnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Cher'omukhovo Lake
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Garvansko Marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Baie de Quiberon
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Forêt de la Reine
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Busly lake
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Proslaukhinskaya
Russia (European) Oka valley in vicinity of Murmino
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (Central Asian) Belozerskaya flood-plain of river Tobol
Russia (European) Okski Biosphere Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Peat pits in Volodarski and Balakhninski districts
Russia (European) Rybachii Peninsula and Ushakovski bay
Russia (Central Asian) Tirikul' and Kadkul' lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kaban'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Beloye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tundrovo lake
Afghanistan Kole Hashmat Khan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dorudsan dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Saudi Arabia King Faisal Airbase, Tabuk
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Ayrakly – Garadzhaovlak
Turkmenistan Khanguyy
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Turkmenistan Erajy
Turkmenistan Soltandag Lake
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Taylak Lake
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol
Turkmenistan Kelif Lakes
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Western Waldviertel
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Austria Steinfeld
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Ukraine Samars'ka bay
Tajikistan Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Kazakhstan Lakes in the lower reaches of the Chu River
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Sweden Lake Lim
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Ushkol Lake
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Sarshyganak Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Poland Slowinska Site
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk Lake
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Netherlands Oostelijke Vechtplassen
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands De Wieden
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Poland Pszczew Lakes and Obra River Valley
Turkey Sodalıgöl (Arın Lake)
Slovenia Črete
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ural and Kindeli rivers
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Netherlands Harderbroek
Germany Winsener Elbmarsch
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Braunschweig sewage farms
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Schlei
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Schaalsee
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Einswarder Plate / Tegeler Plate
Germany Lengeder Teichgebiet
Germany Malxe lowlands / Lakomaer Teiche
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Bodanrück and Mindelsee
Germany Eriskircher Ried of Lake Constance
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Danube valley between Neuburg and Ingolstadt
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Untermain
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Olt valley
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Kyrgyzstan Western Issyk Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Karkyra Valley
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands)
Denmark Tystrup-Bavelse Søerne
Kazakhstan Amangeldy
Poland Tuchola Forest
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Polesie
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Karas Lake
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Sredzka Struga and Maskawa River Valley
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Belarus Polesye valley of river Buh
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Serbia Derdap gorge
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Luitemaa
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Uzbekistan Akpetky lakes and surrounding Aralkum Desert
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Uzbekistan Talimardzhan Reservoir
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Veluwerandmeren
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Meijendel & Berkheide
Netherlands Midden Limburgse Maasplassen
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Lahemaa
Belarus Tremlia fish farm
Philippines Candaba swamp
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Serbia Kljucko Podunavlje
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Serbia Srebrno jezero - Golubac
Serbia Usce Save u Dunav

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality, Other
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Cyprinus carpio Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Nyctereutes procyonoides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Procyon lotor Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Sus scrofa Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Nutrient loads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aythya ferina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/07/2020.