VU
Common Pochard Aythya ferina



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2ab+3b+4ab

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Vulnerable A2ab+3b+4ab
2016 Vulnerable A2ab+3b+4ab
2015 Vulnerable A2ab+3b+4ab
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 823 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 548,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 87,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 1,950,000-2,250,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 22.8 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). In winter, the population size in Europe is estimated to be decreasing at the same rate. Europe holds between 35% (breeding) and 40% (wintering) of the global population, so these declines are significant. The flyway population breeding in western Siberia and wintering in south-west Asia also appears to be declining, although this may at least partly reflect recent variation in monitoring effort (Nagy et al. 2014). No recent information is available about the sizes or trends of the two other flyway populations, which breed in central Asia and winter in south and east Asia, respectively (Wetlands International 2012), and which together are thought to comprise around one third of the global population. Populations in Bangladesh (S. Chowdhury in litt. 2015), Japan (K. Ushiyama in litt. 2015) and South Korea (N. Moores in litt. 2015) are reported to be decreasing. Population declines have not been observed in China (M. Ming in litt. 2015) or Mongolia (S. Gombobaatar in litt. 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Chad V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Congo V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania V Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Algeria Lac Oubeïra
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Sahil settlement - Shelf factory
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Bangladesh Aila Beel
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Belarus Polesye valley of river Buh
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belgium Grensmaas
Belgium Mechels Rivierengebied, Antwerpen
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve
Czechia Poodri
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Denmark Guldborgsund
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord
Denmark Maribo lakes
Estonia Väinameri
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Brenne centrale
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France La Dombes
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
Germany Bodanrück and Mindelsee
Germany Charlottenhofer Weihergebiet and Hirtlohweiher
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Eriskircher Ried of Lake Constance
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Konstanzer Bucht of Lake Constance
Germany Lake Überlingen of Lake Constance
Germany Lewitz
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Schaalsee
Germany Schlei
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Hungary Lake Balaton
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands
India Patna Bird Sanctuary
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Ireland Lough Corrib
Japan Lake Biwako
Japan Lake Hamanako, Enshunada
Japan Lake Nakaumi
Kazakhstan Amangeldy
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Lakes in the lower reaches of the Chu River
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Plinksiai state Nature Reserve and its environs
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Mangla Lake
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes)
Pakistan Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Phoosna Wetlands Complex
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Pakistan Rasool Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Romania Black Sea
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Olt valley
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Sibirskiye Lakes
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Kupy area
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Labudovo okno
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Han-gang river
South Korea Junam reservoir
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Gallocanta lake
Switzerland End of Lake Constance and river Rhine until Bibermühle
Switzerland Lake Constance: Bay of Constance
Switzerland Lake Constance: Bay of Ermatingen
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Turkey Bafa Lake
Turkey Beyşehir Lake
Turkey Burdur Lake
Turkey Büyükçekmece Lake
Turkey Eğirdir Lake
Turkey Hirfanlı Reservoir
Turkey Işıklı Lake
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Sapanca Lake
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Turkey Sodalıgöl (Arın Lake)
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Mikulinetskie fish-ponds
Ukraine Mishuryn Rig
Ukraine Sasyk lake
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality, Other
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Cyprinus carpio Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Nyctereutes procyonoides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Procyon lotor Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Sus scrofa Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Nutrient loads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aythya ferina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/01/2020.