LC
Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 19,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 10,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 43000000-80999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 10,700,000-20,300,000 pairs, which equates to 21,500,000-40,500,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.50% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 43,000,000-81,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was a moderate decline (EBCC 2015). However from 2000-2012 the European population was estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania V Extant
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Socodor wood
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Slovenia Reka valley
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lavreotiki peninsula and Patroklos islet
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Hungary Upper Tisza
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
France Marais de Sacy
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Thames Basin Heaths
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Piave river
Italy Taro river
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Vico lake
Italy Middle course of River Brenta
Italy Migliarino-San Rossore
Italy Farma valley
Italy Mount Tabor
Czechia Doupov hills
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Cer mountain
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Tríbeč
Slovakia Bukovské hills
Slovakia Poiplie
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Muránska plateau and Stolické hills
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Jerma
Serbia Labudovo okno
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Niers valley
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Winsener Elbmarsch
Germany Upper Aller lowlands
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Dümmer
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Riddagshäuser Teiche
Germany Heerter See
Germany Vorderer Steigerwald - Windsheimer Bucht - Steigerwald-Vorland
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Lorsch forest and Vierheim heathland
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Alluvion of the Lower Schwalm near Borken
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Russia (European) Andreyaul'ski reserve
Russia (European) Valley of Terek River (Mozdokski District)
Russia (European) Leninsk forest area
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Lebanon Taanayel Pond
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Serbia Pusta reka
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Lengeder Teichgebiet
Germany Sewage pond Ida near Othfresen
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Spreewald
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Großes Moor near Gifhorn
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Davert
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Luxembourg Region of the Middle Lias
Kenya Boni and Dodori National Reserves
Serbia Toplica
Serbia Stara mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Luscinia megarhynchos. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021.