Common Loon Gavia immer


BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Butcher, G. S.; Niven, D. K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas bird count and the breeding bird survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds.

Carey, C. 1993. Modification of commercial trap nets to reduce capture of Common Loons. In: Morse, L.; Stockwell, S.; Pokras, M. (ed.), 1992 American Loon Conference Proceedings, pp. 237-245. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Concord, NH.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Evers, D. C.; Paruk, J.D.; McIntyre, J.W.; Barr, J.F. 2010. Common Loon (Gavia immer), version 2.0. ithaca, NY Available at:

Forsell, D. J. 1999. Mortality of migratory waterbirds in mid-Atlantic coastal anchored gillnets during March and April, 1998. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Annapolis, MD.

Godfrey, W. E. 1979. The birds of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.

Piper, W. H.; Meyer, M. W.; Klich, M.; Tischler, K. B.; Dolsen, A. 2002. Floating platforms increase reproductive success of common loons. Biological Conservation 104(2): 199-203.

Rimmer, C. C. 1992. Common Loon (Gavia immer): Species Management Abstract. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wetlands International. 2016. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at:

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Gavia immer. Downloaded from on 14/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 14/11/2019.