LC
Common Linnet Linaria cannabina



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Linaria cannabina (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Carduelis following AERC TAC (2003); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993); Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 27,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 31,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000000-99999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.1 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 17,600,000-31,900,000 pairs, which equates to 35,100,000-63,700,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.65% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 54,000,000-98,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Dominican Republic I Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Ponta de São Lourenço
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia Goričko
Slovenia Karst
Sweden Lake Solgen
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Kedros and Kourtaliotiko gorge, Crete
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Northern Sifnos
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Mounts Agia Dynati and Kokkini Rachi, Kefalonia
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Agrafa mountains
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Serifos island
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Russia (European) Insaro-Kovylkinski
Russia (European) Moksha valley in vicinity of Temnikov
Russia (European) Moksha flood-plain in vicinity of Krasnoslobodsk
Spain Los Rodeos-La Esperanza
Spain Isthmus of Jandía sandy plain
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
France Marais de Sacy
France Col de l'Escrinet
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Sila Grande
Serbia Valjevske mountains
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Kopaonik
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Serbia Vlasina
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Serbia Resava gorge
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Wendesser moor
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Russia (European) Issinski
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Montagne de la Serre
France Pointe de Grave
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Syria Abu Zad
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Freiwald
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Germany Northern Black Forest
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Region of Junglinster
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler
Luxembourg Region of Schuttrange, Canach, Lenningen and Gostingen
Luxembourg Region of the Middle Lias
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Linaria cannabina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/02/2023.