LC
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency low
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 94,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 79,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 700000-1399999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number < c.600,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 2001). The European population is estimated at 97,500-167,000 pairs, which equates to 195,000-334,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 780,000-1,340,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-100,000 breeding pairs, c.50-10,000 individuals on migration and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in China; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: In Europe and the EU27 the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 13.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). The population trend elsewhere is not known.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native yes yes
Algeria extant native
Andorra extant native yes
Armenia extant native yes
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahrain extant native yes
Bangladesh extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bhutan extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Brunei extant native
Bulgaria extant native yes
Cambodia extant native yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Croatia extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes yes
Egypt extant native
Estonia extant native yes
Finland extant native yes
France extant native yes yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Guam (to USA) extant vagrant
Hong Kong (China) extant native yes
Hungary extant native yes
India extant native yes
Indonesia extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant native
Italy extant native yes
Japan extant native yes
Jordan extant native yes yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kuwait extant native yes yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Laos extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes yes
Libya extant native
Liechtenstein extant native yes
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Macao (China) extant native
Malaysia extant native yes
Maldives extant vagrant
Malta extant native yes
Micronesia, Federated States of extant uncertain
Moldova extant native yes yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Morocco extant native
Myanmar extant native yes
Nepal extant native yes
Netherlands extant native yes
North Korea extant native yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant native yes
Oman extant native yes
Pakistan extant native yes
Palau extant uncertain
Palestine extant native yes
Papua New Guinea extant native yes
Philippines extant native
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Qatar extant native yes
Romania extant native yes yes
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Serbia extant native yes
Singapore extant native
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
Solomon Islands extant native yes
South Korea extant native yes
Spain extant native yes yes
Sri Lanka extant native yes
Sudan extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant native yes yes
Taiwan, China extant native yes
Tajikistan extant native yes
Thailand extant native yes
Timor-Leste extant native yes
Tunisia extant native
Turkey extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native yes
Vietnam extant native yes
Yemen extant vagrant yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria Machland
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Salzach valley
Belarus Nalibockaja Pušča
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Zachodniaja Biarezina
Belgium Bassin de la Haine
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Belgium Haute Meuse
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale
Belgium Vijverkomplex van Midden Limburg
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Strandzha
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Middle Drava River
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Upper Drava River
Czechia Beskydy mountains
Czechia Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko
Czechia Doupov hills
Czechia Hermansky stav-Odra-Poolsi wetlands
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czechia Litovelske Pomoravi
Czechia Poodri
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Czechia Zehunský rybník pond
Denmark Forest areas along the northern part of Vejle Fjord
Denmark Haderslev Tunneldal (Pamhule Skov)
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Estonia Lahemaa
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Bassigny
France Brenne centrale
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Plaine du Forez
France Plateau Ardennais
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
Germany Ahrgebirge
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Hoher Fläming Görzke-Kranepuhl
Germany Hördter Rheinaue
Germany Hornbach and tributaries
Germany Innerste valley near Langelsheim
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Jagst and adjoining valleys
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Middle and Lower Mosel
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Middle Fulda valley
Germany Nahe valley
Germany Northern Steigerwald
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Sachsenwald
Germany Sächsische Schweiz National Park
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Solling
Germany Spreewald
Germany Stepenitz-Maurine-Radegast
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Untermain
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Vorderer Steigerwald - Windsheimer Bucht - Steigerwald-Vorland
Germany Werra meadows near Bad Salzungen
Germany Wetterau
Latvia Abava valley
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Salaca valley
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Lithuania Dubysa River hereinafter Lyduvenai settlement & its valley
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Jura & Sesuvis rivers and the lower reaches of Jura River
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Valley of Minija River
Lithuania Valley of Venta River
Lithuania Zemaitija National Park
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Valley of the Syre
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Montenegro Bjelopavlici
Montenegro Bojana Delta
Montenegro Durmitor
Montenegro Plavsko Lake and Lim and Grncar Valley
Montenegro Skadar Lake
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Het Gooi & Vechtstreek
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Veluwe
Netherlands Zuidoost-Achterhoek
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Tuchola Forest
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Romania Avrig - Scorei - Făgăraş
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Dono-Donetskoye flood-plain
Russia (European) Moksha flood-plain in vicinity of Krasnoslobodsk
Russia (European) Moksha valley in vicinity of Temnikov
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Donje Podrinje
Serbia Donje Pomoravlje
Serbia Gornje Pomoravlje
Serbia Gornje Potisje
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Laborecká upland
Slovakia Poiplie
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovenia Dravinja valley
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Spodnja Sava
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains
Ukraine Korostushevskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Tsybul'kivs'ki lakes
Ukraine Velyka Osokorovka

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Alcedo atthis. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/common-kingfisher-alcedo-atthis on 06/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 06/06/2023.