LC
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 94,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 79,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 700000-1399999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number < c.600,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 2001). The European population is estimated at 97,500-167,000 pairs, which equates to 195,000-334,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 780,000-1,340,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-100,000 breeding pairs, c.50-10,000 individuals on migration and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in China; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: In Europe and the EU27 the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 13.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). The population trend elsewhere is not known.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) V Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of U Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palau U Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria Machland
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Salzach valley
Belarus Nalibockaja Pušča
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Zachodniaja Biarezina
Belgium Bassin de la Haine
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Belgium Haute Meuse
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale
Belgium Vijverkomplex van Midden Limburg
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Strandzha
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Middle Drava River
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Upper Drava River
Czech Republic Beskydy mountains
Czech Republic Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko
Czech Republic Doupov hills
Czech Republic Hermansky stav-Odra-Poolsi wetlands
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czech Republic Litovelske Pomoravi
Czech Republic Poodri
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Czech Republic Zehunský rybník pond
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Estonia Lahemaa
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Bassigny
France Brenne centrale
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Plaine du Forez
France Plateau Ardennais
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Lake Bolsena
Italy Middle course of River Brenta
Italy River Sele middle valley
Italy Ticino river
Latvia Abava valley
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Salaca valley
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Lithuania Dubysa River hereinafter Lyduvenai settlement & its valley
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Jura & Sesuvis rivers and the lower reaches of Jura River
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Valley of Minija River
Lithuania Valley of Venta River
Lithuania Zemaitija National Park
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Valley of the Syre
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop-Ketelmeer (superseded 24/5/2017)
Netherlands Leudal
Netherlands Veluwe
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Tuchola Forest
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Romania Avrig - Scorei - Făgăraş
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Russia (European) Dono-Donetskoye flood-plain
Russia (European) Moksha flood-plain in vicinity of Krasnoslobodsk
Russia (European) Moksha valley in vicinity of Temnikov
Serbia Bosutska forest
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Donje Podrinje
Serbia Gornje Pomoravlje
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Slovakia Poiplie
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovenia Dravinja valley
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Spodnja Sava
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains
Ukraine Korostushevskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Tsybul'kivs'ki lakes
Ukraine Velyka Osokorovka

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Alcedo atthis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017.