LC
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 116,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 106,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4000000-6500000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.4 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 409,000-603,000 pairs, which equates to 819,000-1,210,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 19% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 4,310,000-6,370,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is therefore placed in the band 4,000,000-6,500,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 16.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). In Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and northern Cameroon the species decreased by 75-94% in all areas surveyed (both within and outside protected areas) between 1969-1973 and 2000-2004 (Thiollay 2007).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brazil V Extant
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana V Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes Yes
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Swaziland N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czech Republic Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
France Plaine du Forez
Greece Kythira island
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Sara mountain
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares
Spain Famara sandy plain
Spain Haría-Tabayesco
Spain La Dehesa grasslands
Spain Llano Grande - Malpaís Grande - Malpaís Chico
Spain Peninsula of Jandía
Spain Río Cabras gully
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Switzerland Augstmatthorn
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 5500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Falco tinnunculus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2019.