Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 116,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 106,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4000000-6500000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.4 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 409,000-603,000 pairs, which equates to 819,000-1,210,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 19% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 4,310,000-6,370,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is therefore placed in the band 4,000,000-6,500,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 16.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). In Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and northern Cameroon the species decreased by 75-94% in all areas surveyed (both within and outside protected areas) between 1969-1973 and 2000-2004 (Thiollay 2007).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brazil V Extant
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana V Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes Yes
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Ilhéus do Porto Santo
Portugal Ponta de São Lourenço
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest
Azerbaijan Kusari (Gusari) area
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Malta Buskett and Wied il-Luq
Malta Comino island
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Andorra Pirineo de Andorra
Cyprus Cape Greco
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Ponor
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Socodor wood
Romania Dobron forest
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Kullaberg
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Båtfors – Bredfors
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Mount Parnitha
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Kedros and Kourtaliotiko gorge, Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Thrypti and Orno mountains, Crete
Greece Northern Sifnos
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Mount Peristeri
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Mount Zakrou, Crete
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Mounts Agia Dynati and Kokkini Rachi, Kefalonia
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Ikaria island
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Agrafa mountains
Greece Artemisio and Lyrkeio mountains
Greece Mount Kyllini (Ziria)
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Serifos island
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Mount Kerkis, Samos
Greece Saria island and northern Karpathos
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Kesznyéten
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Hungary Gerje-sik
Hungary Tápió valley
Hungary Gerecse
Russia (European) Siniye mountains
Spain River Moros
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Villafáfila
Spain De la Plata mountain range
Spain Los Gigantes coastal cliff
Spain Mountain of Agua, gully of Los Cochinos and gully of Cuevas Negras
Spain Vilaflor pine woodland
Spain Los Rodeos-La Esperanza
Spain Santo Domingo coastal cliffs
Spain Centinela mountain and La Esquina plain
Spain Rasca lava fields-Guaza mountain-Las Mesas plain
Spain Step rocks of Hermigua and Agulo
Spain Garajonay National Park
Spain La Caldera de Taburiente National Park
Spain La Dehesa grasslands
Spain Ventejís mountain
Spain Naos Bay-Hoya de Tacorón
Spain Western coast of El Hierro
Spain Nizdafe plains
Spain Lanzarote islets
Spain Famara crag
Spain Haría-Tabayesco
Spain Famara sandy plain
Spain Plains of La Corona-Las Honduras
Spain El Mojón
Spain Tenegüime gully
Spain Morro Tabaiba-Morro de los Rincones-Vallebrón mountains
Spain Gully of Ajuí-Betancuria
Spain Tarajalejo mountain range
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares
Spain Peninsula of Jandía
Spain El Médano coast
Spain Pozo Negro mountain-Vigán
Spain Island of Lobos
Spain Sandy plain of Corralejo
Spain Río Cabras gully
Spain Tamadaba pine woodland
Spain Pajonales, Ojeda, Inagua and La Data pine woodlands
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Bilogir'ya
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands)
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Bakhtyn river valley
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Forêt de la Reine
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz
France Marais de Sacy
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Vallée du Fouzon
France Vallée du Régino
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Plaine des Maures
France Col de l'Escrinet
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Grigne
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Piave river
Italy Laga mountains
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Ernici and Simbruini mountains
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Cicolano
Italy Sirente, Velino and Duchessa mountains
Italy River Biferno
Italy Coast between Marina di Camerota and Policastro Bussentino
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Mount Cofano, Cape San Vito and Mount Sparagio
Italy River Cecina middle valley
Italy Cape Otranto and Cape Santa Maria di Leuca coast
Italy Apennines from Passo del Cerreto to Monte Caligi
Italy Ticino river
Italy Antigorio and Formazza valleys
Italy Val Grande
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Stelvio National Park
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czechia Hermansky stav-Odra-Poolsi wetlands
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Bosutska forest
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Obedska bara
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Cer mountain
Serbia Valjevske mountains
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Kopaonik
Serbia Prokletije
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Bukovské hills
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Vlasina
Serbia Jerma
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Serbia Zlot gorge--Dubasnica
Serbia Resava gorge
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Derdap gorge
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Norway Alta-Kautokeino watercourse
Norway Sør-Fugløy
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Machland
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Unterlammer hill country
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Austria Slope forests in the Klostertal
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Heideboden
Poland Barycz river valley
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt
Switzerland Augstmatthorn
Switzerland Mont Tendre
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn
Switzerland Klingnau reservoir
Switzerland Lowlands of Zurich and lower valley of the river Thur
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Grangettes
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore
Switzerland La Brévine and Les Ponts-de-Martel
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Aletsch region
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Simplon region
Switzerland Maggia valley
Switzerland Bolle di Magadino
Switzerland Piora - Dötra
Switzerland Bregaglia valley
Switzerland Generoso mountain
Switzerland River Rhone: Geneva to Verbois reservoir
Switzerland 'Grosses Moos' plain and Niederried reservoir
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Sächsische Schweiz National Park
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Russia (European) Talginskaya Valley
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tobol river between mouths of the Uya and Ubagan rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Yarovskoe marsh
Russia (Central Asian) Togusak valley
Russia (Central Asian) Rocky outcrops of river Uj
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Shartymka valley
Russia (Central Asian) Parshivye mountains
Russia (Central Asian) Cheka mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Kazanskaya flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Marsh westward of village Stepanovka near Okunevo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Maly Sungul' Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of river Irtysh near village Atak
Russia (Central Asian) Kaburlinskaya
Bulgaria Rayanovtsi
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Belasitza mountain
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Armenia Gndasar
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Montagne de la Serre
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat
Russia (Central Asian) Ebeity lake
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (Central Asian) Tri Gusikhi
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Kazakhstan Urda Sands
Lebanon Ramlieh Valley
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Morocco Oued Tahadart
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Dolomites
Austria Karwendel
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Ukraine Khersonesko-Fiolentske coastal zone
Lebanon Yammouneh Nature Reserve
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Upper of r.Mokra Sura
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Ukraine Krasnopols'kyj Forest
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Italy Rhaetian Alps
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Italy Ligurian Alps
Italy Finalese
Turkmenistan Garashor
Italy Val d'Ossola
Italy Monte Rosa (versante valdostano) ed Alta Val Sesia
Italy Mont Blanc (Italian side)
Slovenia Slovenske gorice
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Luosto
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ural and Kindeli rivers
Germany Leda-Jümme lowlands
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Luxembourg Dudelange Haard
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Alai
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Hel Peninsula
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Belarus Braslav lakes
Spain Llano Grande - Malpaís Grande - Malpaís Chico
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Väinameri
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Karadjordjevo
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Okanj I Rusanda
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Titelski breg
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Donje Podrinje
Serbia Usce Save u Dunav
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Pester
Serbia Golija
Serbia Gornje Pomoravlje
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Morocco Merja Bargha
Morocco Merja Halloufa
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya
Morocco Sidi Moussa - Oualidia
Morocco Tarhazoute
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Luitemaa
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Serbia Gornja Mostonga
Serbia Juzni Banat
Serbia Vrsacki ritovi

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 5500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Falco tinnunculus. Downloaded from on 24/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/10/2021.