Common Hoopoe Upupa epops


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 104,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 78,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: The overall population is estimated at 5,000,000-10,000,000 individuals (Krištín and Kirwan 2015). The European population is estimated at 1,300,000-2,760,000 pairs, which equates to 2,600,000-5,530,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The species is declining throughout its range as a result of habitat destruction and over-hunting (del Hoyo et al. 2001). The European population trend between 1982 and 2013 is uncertain (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant Yes Yes
Chad N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Congo N Extant Yes Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Indonesia V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant Yes Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes Yes
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) V Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes Yes
Philippines V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Zachodniaja Biarezina
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Cyprus Pafos Forest
Latvia Zile forest area
Latvia Pape lake
Romania Dobron forest
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Mount Kyllini (Ziria)
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Korostushevskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Zakhidnyj Bug river valley
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
France Ile de la Platière
France Montagne de la Serre
France Arjuzanx
France Bassigny
France Vallée du Régino
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Plateau de Valensole
France Plaine des Maures
France Marais de la Souche
France Plaine du Forez
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Portugal Ponta de São Lourenço
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Pcinja
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Wachau
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Unterlammer hill country
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Orchard landscape between Hohenstaufen and Teck in the mid-Albvorland
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Kaiserstuhl
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Pointe de Grave
France Camargue
France Iles d'Hyères
France Marais de Manteyer
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Les Couzes Nord
France Les Couzes Sud
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Domaine d'Orx
France Forêt de Jugny
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Brenne centrale
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Forêts domaniales de Corse
France Forêt de Chaux
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etang de Lindre
France Plateau de Delme, Val de Petite Seille
France Hautes Corbières
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Massif des Albères
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Minervois
France Montagnes de Marcou, de l'Espinouse et du Caroux
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Vallée de Melles, cols d'Aoueran et d'Artisagou et Mont Vallier
France Crau
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest)
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Forêt du Gavre
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Basse Ardêche
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Freiwald
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
United Arab Emirates Mushrif Park
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Turkmenistan Garashor
Slovenia Slovenske gorice
Slovenia Dravinja valley
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
North Macedonia Pelagonia
Germany Vorland of the Mittlere Schwäbische Alb
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Enz valley Mühlhausen - Roßwag
Germany Military training area Munster-Nord
Germany Heathlands of Lieberose-Staakow-Reicherskreuz
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Lorsch forest and Vierheim heathland
Germany Mönchbruch of Mörfelden and Rüsselsheim and heath extensions (GG)
Germany Untermain
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Widawa and Olesnica River Valley
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Kurpie Site
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Slovenia Goričko
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Savanna Dry major breeding
Altitude 0 - 3650 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Upupa epops. Downloaded from on 05/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 05/07/2022.