LC
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 46,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 104,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,700,000-4,700,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The Russian national population is estimated at c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 489,000-623,000 pairs, which equates to 977,000-1,250,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Lake Ohrid and surrounding area
Albania Narta Lagoon
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Canada Cumberland Marshes
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord
Denmark Lovns Bredning
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kabli
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Germany Brodtener Ufer
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Schlei
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Hungary Lake Balaton
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast
Latvia Irbe strait
Latvia Salacgriva-Vitrupe
Latvia Ziemupe-Riva coastal
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khoton-Khorgon Lakes
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Oigon Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Otgontenger Mountain
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Poland Vistula river mouth
Romania Argeş reservoir
Romania Black Sea
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Olt valley
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Russia (Asian) Angara river source
Russia (Asian) Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands
Russia (Asian) Shantarskiye Islands
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Lebedinoye and Svetloye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Russia (Central Asian) Vizhay river
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Floodplain of Cheptsa river
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Lake Ayke
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Russia (European) Morkushskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Unskaya bay
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Labudovo okno
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Slovenia River Drava
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Coastal area of Torö – Muskö
Sweden Coastal area of Ystad – Hörte
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar)
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Lyman lake
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
USA Prince William Sound
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Perca fluviatilis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Bucephala clangula. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/11/2019.