LC
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 46,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 104,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,700,000-4,700,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The Russian national population is estimated at c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 489,000-623,000 pairs, which equates to 977,000-1,250,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Lithuania Valley of Minija River
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Lithuania Marine waters along the Curonian Spit
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Hiiumaa islets
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Väike Väin strait
Estonia Abruka island
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Gulf of Riga, east coast
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Lough Carra
Ireland Lough Mask
Ireland Lough Sheelin
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia River Drava
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Kävsjön – Store Mosse
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Dannemora
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Sweden Fjord of Båta
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lake Doïrani
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Markiezaat
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Öreg Lake of Tata
Hungary Gemenc
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Danube bend
Hungary Lake Balaton
Hungary Danube reach between Gönyû and Szob
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Russia (European) Koporski Bay
Russia (European) South-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay
Russia (European) Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Oril' river valley
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Marais de Sacy
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Alvie
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cameron Reservoir
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Castle Loch, Lochmaben
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Flanders Moss and Lake of Menteith
United Kingdom Gladhouse Reservoir
United Kingdom Greenlaw Moor
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Hornsea Mere
United Kingdom Din Moss and Hoselaw Loch
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch Ken and Dee Marshes
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Kinnordy
United Kingdom Loch of Lintrathen
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Spynie
United Kingdom Loch Vaa
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Muir of Dinnet
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Inverness Lochs
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Westwater Reservoir
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Cnuic Agus Cladach Mhuile
United Kingdom Mochrum and Castle Lochs
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Drini Delta
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Czechia Poodri
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Romania Black Sea
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Korshage, Hundested and surrounding sea area
Denmark Hovvig
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Flensborg Fjord and Nybøl Nor
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Venø and Venø Sund
Denmark Glomstrup Vig, Agerø, Munkholm and Katholm Odde, Lindholm, and Rotholme
Denmark Lovns Bredning
Denmark Løgstør Bredning
Denmark Guldborgsund
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Nissum Bredning
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord
Denmark Madum Sø
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Denmark Dråby Vig and Buksør Odde
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Denmark Kiel Bay and adjacent waters
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Vorma
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Gaulosen
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Poland Puck Bay
Switzerland End of Lake Constance and river Rhine until Bibermühle
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore
Albania Lake Ohrid and surrounding area
Serbia Labudovo okno
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Ammersee
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Brodtener Ufer
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Spreewald
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Alfsee
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Heerter See
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany East- and south-east coast of Fehmarn
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Lake Überlingen of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Sweden Coastal area of Torö – Muskö
Sweden Coastal area of Ystad – Hörte
Estonia Hari Kurk strait
Estonia Paldiski bay
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare coast
Estonia Suur Väin strait
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Lahepere and Lohusalu bays
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kuressare bay
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet [DK130]
Latvia Irbe strait
Latvia Salacgriva-Vitrupe
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar)
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Morkushskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Watershead of Kama and Porysh rivers
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
Mongolia Khoton-Khorgon Lakes
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Russia (Asian) Shantarskiye Islands
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Angara river source
Russia (Asian) Babushkina bay
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Estonia Kabli
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Ohepalu
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Põhja-Kõrvemaa
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Sutu bay
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (European) Lake Ayke
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Unskaya bay
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Lebedinoye and Svetloye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Travykul' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Vizhay river
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Russia (European) Lower Uvod' river
Russia (European) Yuzhskoe lake-land
Russia (Central Asian) Yakush Lake
Latvia Ziemupe-Riva coastal
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Batova
France Forêts du Perche
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Boucle de Moisson
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etang des Landes
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (European) Peat pits in Volodarski and Balakhninski districts
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Canada Codroy Valley Estuary
Canada Niagara River Corridor
Canada Prince Edward County South Shore
Canada Greater Rondeau Area
Canada West End of Lake Ontario
Canada Wolfe Island
Canada Tadoussac
Canada Nicolet et Baie-du-Fèbvre
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Canal de Beauharnois
Canada Cumberland Marshes
Canada Tagish Narrows
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Salzach valley
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine River Tysa Valley
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Sweden Lake Lim
Poland Pszczew Lakes and Obra River Valley
Russia (Asian) Islands of the Enisey river near Shushenskoye
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Netherlands Delta Coast
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Russia (European) Floodplain of Cheptsa river
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Schlei
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Selenter See
Germany Obersee: Schachener Bucht
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Heathlands of Lieberose-Staakow-Reicherskreuz
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Danube valley between Neuburg and Ingolstadt
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Untermain
Germany Eder alluvion
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Lough Oughter
Ireland Lough Derg (River Shannon)
Ireland Lough Arrow
Ireland Lough Foyle
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Argeş reservoir
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Olt valley
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Odense Fjord
Mongolia Otgontenger Mountain
Mongolia Oigon Lake
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Poland Insko Site
Poland Forest at Gwda River
Poland Lebork Forest
Poland Mirachowo Forest
Poland Tuchola Forest
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Polesie
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Czarna River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
USA Prince William Sound
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Moldova Costești – Stânca Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kunovatski
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Karula
Estonia Koigi
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake
Russia (Asian) Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Meelva bog
Estonia Meenikunno bog
Estonia Misso
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Muddus
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Serbia Srebrno jezero - Golubac

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Perca fluviatilis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Bucephala clangula. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/07/2020.