LC
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 46,900,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 104,000,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 2012
Population trend stable - suspected -
Generation length 8 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,700,000-4,700,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The Russian national population is estimated at c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 489,000-623,000 pairs, which equates to 977,000-1,250,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant vagrant
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahamas extant vagrant
Bangladesh extant vagrant
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bermuda (to UK) extant native
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native
Bulgaria extant native yes
Canada extant native yes yes
China (mainland) extant native
Croatia extant native yes
Cyprus extant vagrant yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes yes
Estonia extant native yes yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native yes
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes yes
Georgia extant native
Germany extant native yes yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant vagrant
Greece extant native yes
Greenland (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Hungary extant native yes yes
Iceland extant native yes
India extant native
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant vagrant
Italy extant native yes
Japan extant native
Jordan extant vagrant
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes yes
Lebanon extant vagrant yes
Liechtenstein extant native
Lithuania extant native yes yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Malta extant vagrant
Mexico extant native
Moldova extant native
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes yes
Morocco extant vagrant
Myanmar extant native
Nepal extant native
Netherlands extant native yes
North Korea extant native
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant native yes yes
Pakistan extant native
Palestine extant vagrant yes
Poland extant native yes yes
Portugal extant vagrant
Romania extant native yes yes
Russia extant native yes yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes yes
Russia (European) extant native yes yes
Serbia extant native yes yes
Slovakia extant native yes yes
Slovenia extant native yes yes
South Korea extant native
Spain extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes yes
Sweden extant native yes yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant vagrant yes
Taiwan, China extant native
Tajikistan extant vagrant
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native
Ukraine extant native yes yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
USA extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Drini Delta
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Lovns Bredning
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Albania Lake Ohrid and surrounding area
Sweden Coastal area of Torö – Muskö
Sweden Coastal area of Ystad – Hörte
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Irbe strait
Latvia Salacgriva-Vitrupe
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar)
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Morkushskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
Mongolia Khoton-Khorgon Lakes
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Russia (Asian) Shantarskiye Islands
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Angara river source
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake
Russia (Asian) Forty Islands
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Estonia Kabli
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (European) Lake Ayke
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Unskaya bay
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (Central Asian) Lebedinoye and Svetloye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Gizilagach
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Latvia Ziemupe-Riva coastal
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Canada Cumberland Marshes
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Hungary Lake Balaton
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Russia (Central Asian) Vizhay river
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (European) Floodplain of Cheptsa river
Germany Brodtener Ufer
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Schlei
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Argeş reservoir
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Black Sea
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Olt valley
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Mongolia Otgontenger Mountain
Mongolia Oigon Lake
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Poland Vistula river mouth
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Slovenia River Drava
USA Prince William Sound
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Russia (Asian) Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Srebrno jezero - Golubac
Russia (Asian) Schast'ya Gulf
Montenegro Skadar Lake
Russia (Asian) Mukhtel' lake
Russia (Asian) Evoron-Chukchagirskoye depression
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains
Russia (Asian) Tunkin valley
Russia (Asian) Ol'khon area
Russia (Asian) Muna-Besyuke

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Perca fluviatilis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Bucephala clangula. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/common-goldeneye-bucephala-clangula on 24/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 24/02/2024.