Common Eider Somateria mollissima


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Burnham, K.K., Johnson, J.A., Konkel, B. and Burnham, J.L. 2012. Nesting Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) Population Quintuples in Northwest Greenland. Arctic 65(4): 456-464.

Camphuysen, C. J.; Berrevoets, C. M.; Cremers, H. J. W. M.; Dekinga, A.; Dekker, R.; Ens, B. J.; van der Have, T. M.; Kats, R. K. H.; Kuiken, T.; Leopold, M. F.; van der Meer, J.; Piersma, T. 2002. Mass mortality of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Dutch Wadden Sea, winter 1999/2000: starvation in a commercially exploited wetland of international importance. Biological Conservation 106: 303-317.

Carboneras, C., Christie, D.A., Kirwan, G.M. & Sharpe, C.J. 2017. Common Eider (Somateria mollissima). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Christensen, T.K. and Hounisen, J.P. 2014. Managing hunted populations through sex-specific season lengths: a case of the Common Eider in the Baltic-Wadden Sea flyway population. European Journal of Wildlife Research 60(5): 717-726.

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Ekroos, J., Fox, A.D., Christensen, T.K., Petersen, I.K., Kilpi, M., Jónsson, J.E., Green, M., Laursen, K., Cervencl, A., de Boer, P., Nilsson, L., Meissner, W., Garthe, S. and Öst, M. 2012. Declines amongst breeding Eider Somateria mollissima numbers in the Baltic/Wadden Sea flyway. Ornis Fennica 89: 81-90.

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HELCOM. 2013. Species Information Sheet; Somateria mollissima. HELCOM Red List Bird Expert Group.

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Laursen, K. & Møller, A. P. 2014. Long-term changes in nutrients and mussel stocks are related to numbers of breeding eiders Somateria mollissimaat a large Baltic colony. PLoS ONE 9: e95851.

Laursen, K. and Møller, A. P. 2016. Your tools disappear when you stop eating: phenotypic variation in gizzard mass of eiders. Journal of Zoology 299: 213–220.

Lehikoinen, A., Öst, M., Hollmén, T. & Kilpi, M. 2008. Does sex-specific duckling mortality contribute to male bias in adult Common Eiders? Condor 110(3): 574-578.

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Merkel, F.R. 2010. Evidence of recent population recovery in Common Eiders breeding in western Greenland. J. Wildl. Manag. 74(8): 1869-1874.

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Petersen, M.R., Byrd, G.V., Sonsthagen, S.A. & Sexson, M.G. 2015. Re-colonization by common eiders Somateria mollissima in the Aleutian Archipelago following removal of introduced arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus. Journal of Avian Biology 46(5): 538–549.

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Skov, H; Heinänen, S.; Žydelis, R.; Bellebaum, J.; Bzoma, S.; Dagys, M.; Durinck, J.; Garthe, S.; Grishanov, G.; Hario, M.; Kieckbusch, J.J.; Kube, J.; Kuresoo, A.; Larsson, K.; Luigujoe, L.; Meissner, W.; Nehls, H.W.; Nilsson, L.; Petersen, I.K.; Roos, M.M.; Pihl, S.; Sonntag, N.; Stock, A.; Stipniece, A.; Wahl, J. 2011. Waterbird Populations and Pressures in the Baltic Sea. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.

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Tjørnløv, R.S., Humaidan, J. and Frederiksen, M. 2013. Impacts of avian cholera on survival of Common Eiders Somateria mollissima in a Danish colony. Bird Study 60(3): 321-326.

Waltho, C. and Coulson, J. 2015. The common eider. – T & AD Poyser.

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Further resources

IUCN SSC Duck Specialist Group

IUCN SSC Threatened Waterfowl Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Somateria mollissima. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2022.