NT
Common Eider Somateria mollissima



References

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Bregnballe, T.; Noer, H.; Christensen, T.K.; Clausen, P.; Asferg, T.; Fox, A.D.; Delany, S. 2006. Sustainable hunting of migratory waterbirds: the Danish approach. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 854-860. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Burnham, K.K., Johnson, J.A., Konkel, B. and Burnham, J.L. 2012. Nesting Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) Population Quintuples in Northwest Greenland. Arctic 65(4): 456-464.

Camphuysen, C. J.; Berrevoets, C. M.; Cremers, H. J. W. M.; Dekinga, A.; Dekker, R.; Ens, B. J.; van der Have, T. M.; Kats, R. K. H.; Kuiken, T.; Leopold, M. F.; van der Meer, J.; Piersma, T. 2002. Mass mortality of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Dutch Wadden Sea, winter 1999/2000: starvation in a commercially exploited wetland of international importance. Biological Conservation 106: 303-317.

Carboneras, C., Christie, D.A., Kirwan, G.M. & Sharpe, C.J. 2017. Common Eider (Somateria mollissima). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Christensen, T.K. and Hounisen, J.P. 2014. Managing hunted populations through sex-specific season lengths: a case of the Common Eider in the Baltic-Wadden Sea flyway population. European Journal of Wildlife Research 60(5): 717-726.

D’Alba, L.; Monaghan, P.; Nager, R.G. 2010. Advances in laying date and increasing population size suggest positive responses to climate change in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland. Ibis 152(1): 19-28.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Descamps, S., Jenouvrier, S., Gilchrist, H.G. and Forbes, M.R. 2012. Avian cholera, a threat to the viability of an Arctic seabird colony? PLoS ONE 7(2): e29659.

Desholm, M., Christensen, T. K., Scheiffarth, G., Hario, M., Andersson, A., Ens, B., Camphysen, C.J., Nilsson, L., Waltho, C.M., Lorentsen, S.H., Kuresoo, A., Kats, R.K.H., Fleet, D.M., Fox, A.D. 2003. Status of the Baltic/Wadden Sea population of the Common Eider Somateria m. mollissima. WILDFOWL 53(167-204).

Ekroos, J., Fox, A.D., Christensen, T.K., Petersen, I.K., Kilpi, M., Jónsson, J.E., Green, M., Laursen, K., Cervencl, A., de Boer, P., Nilsson, L., Meissner, W., Garthe, S. and Öst, M. 2012. Declines amongst breeding Eider Somateria mollissima numbers in the Baltic/Wadden Sea flyway. Ornis Fennica 89: 81-90.

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Laursen, K. & Møller, A. P. 2014. Long-term changes in nutrients and mussel stocks are related to numbers of breeding eiders Somateria mollissimaat a large Baltic colony. PLoS ONE 9: e95851.

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Merkel, F.R. 2010. Evidence of recent population recovery in Common Eiders breeding in western Greenland. J. Wildl. Manag. 74(8): 1869-1874.

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Petersen, M.R., Byrd, G.V., Sonsthagen, S.A. & Sexson, M.G. 2015. Re-colonization by common eiders Somateria mollissima in the Aleutian Archipelago following removal of introduced arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus. Journal of Avian Biology 46(5): 538–549.

Ross, B. P., & Furness, R. W. 2000. Minimising the impact of eider ducks on mussel farming. University of Glasgow in association with Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers and Scottish Natural Heritage.

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Tjørnløv, R.S., Humaidan, J. and Frederiksen, M. 2013. Impacts of avian cholera on survival of Common Eiders Somateria mollissima in a Danish colony. Bird Study 60(3): 321-326.

Waltho, C. and Coulson, J. 2015. The common eider. – T & AD Poyser.

Wetlands International. 2012. Waterbird Population Estimates: Fifth Edition. Summary Report. Edited by Taej Mundkur and Szabolcs Nagy. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Žydelis, R.; Small, C.; French, G. 2013. The incidental catch of seabirds in gillnet fisheries: A global review. Biological Conservation 162: 76-88.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Somateria mollissima. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/07/2019.