NT
Common Eider Somateria mollissima



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A4abcde
2016 Near Threatened A4abcde
2015 Near Threatened A4abcde
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 59,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 69,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -

Population justification:

The global population is estimated to number c. 3,300,000-4,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012), which equates to 1,580,000-1,910,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The European population is estimated at 791,000-955,000 pairs.

Trend justification: In Europe the population size is currently declining overall at a rate of >40% over three generations (27 years) (BirdLife International 2015). A decline has been evident since the late 1990s in the largest flyway population of S. m. mollissima in the Baltic and Wadden Seas, based both on breeding data (Ekroos et al. 2012) and on midwinter counts conducted as part of the International Waterbird Census (Nagy et al. 2014). Rapid declines have been reported for the islands of Gotland (from 7,140 nesting females in 2007 to 1,310 in 2015) and Öland in the Baltic Sea (K. Larsson in litt. 2015). Europe (including Greenland) holds >60% of the global population (Wetlands International 2012), so the declines in Europe are globally significant.

The remainder of the population occurs in North America where population trends are variable. The Pacific population, S. m. v-nigra, which represents c. 4% of the global population is thought to have declined in the northern parts of its range between the 1980s and early 2000s,  while in central Arctic Canada and north-west Alaska it has declined, however, it appears to be increasing in the rest of Alaska (Bowman et al. 2015). The American population, S. m. dresseri, (c. 9% of the global population) shows variable trends with the northern population increasing and southern population decreasing. Trends are uncertain for the Hudson Bay, S. m. sedentaria, (c. 6% of the global population) and Northern, S. m. borealis, (c. 16% of the global population) populations. Given the strong declines in the European population and a lack of compensatory increases in the North American population the overall population trend is thought to be declining moderately rapidly.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia V Extant
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece V Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Montenegro V Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Turkey V Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Cape Freels Coastline and Cabot Island
Canada Cayes à Meck
Canada Eastern Shore Islands
Canada Eaux de l'archipel de Mingan
Canada Fischot Islands
Canada Île aux Fraises
Canada Île Bicquette
Canada Îles Sainte-Marie
Canada Mistaken Point
Canada Petite Île Sainte-Geneviève
Canada Point Lepreau/Maces Bay
Canada South Flaherty Islands
Canada Wadham Islands and adjacent Marine Area
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Denmark Korshage, Hundested and surrounding sea area
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Sejerø Bay and Nekselø
Denmark Sprogø and Halsskov Rev
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Vresen and sea area between Fyn and Langeland
Estonia Irbe strait
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Örö-Bengtskär
Germany East- and south-east coast of Fehmarn
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Sagasbank and eastern coast of Oldenburg
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Stoller Grund, Gabelsflach and Mittelgrund
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Greenland (to Denmark) Booth Sund area
Greenland (to Denmark) Dalrymple Rock
Greenland (to Denmark) Ikkattoq fjord and islands
Greenland (to Denmark) Kingittuarsuk III
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissorsuit (Ederfugleøer)
Greenland (to Denmark) Littleton island and nearby islets
Greenland (to Denmark) Qeqertaarsuit (Ederfugleøer)
Greenland (to Denmark) Stordal-Moskusoksefjord-Badlanddal-Loch Fyne-Myggbukta
Iceland Aedey
Iceland Borgarfjördur
Iceland Höfdahverfi
Iceland Hrísey
Iceland Hvalnesskridur-Thvottárskridur
Iceland Löngufjörur
Iceland Melrakkaslétta
Iceland Skardsfjördur
Iceland Skerjafjördur
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Norway Froan
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Lofoten
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Slettnes
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Tanamunningen
Norway Tautra & Svaet
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Norway Været
Norway Vega archipelago
Russia (Asian) Cape Billings
Russia (Asian) Commander Islands
Russia (Asian) Geka bay
Russia (Asian) Inchoun and Uelen lagoons
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
Russia (Asian) Khalpili Islands and Impoveyem Bay
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Mechigmenskiy Gulf
Russia (Asian) Meinypylginski and Kapylgyn lakes
Russia (Asian) Sireniki shore of Chukotka
Russia (Asian) Vankarem lowlands and Kolyuchin bay
Russia (Asian) West Chaun plain
Russia (Asian) Wrangel and Herald Islands
Russia (European) Ainov islands
Russia (European) Coastal belt of eastern Murmansk
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev)
Russia (European) Onega Bay of the White Sea
Russia (European) Seven islands
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
Russia (European) Terski coast
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Midterhuken & Eholmen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordre Isfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northwest Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
USA Amchitka Island Colony

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Low Impact: 3
Stresses
None
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vulpes lagopus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Haliaeetus albicilla Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Scewed sex ratios, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Pasteurella multocida Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Somateria mollissima. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/07/2019.