NT
Common Eider Somateria mollissima



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A4abcde
2016 Near Threatened A4abcde
2015 Near Threatened A4abcde
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 59,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 69,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -

Population justification:

The global population is estimated to number c. 3,300,000-4,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012), which equates to 1,580,000-1,910,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The European population is estimated at 791,000-955,000 pairs.

Trend justification: In Europe the population size is currently declining overall at a rate of >40% over three generations (27 years) (BirdLife International 2015). A decline has been evident since the late 1990s in the largest flyway population of S. m. mollissima in the Baltic and Wadden Seas, based both on breeding data (Ekroos et al. 2012) and on midwinter counts conducted as part of the International Waterbird Census (Nagy et al. 2014). Rapid declines have been reported for the islands of Gotland (from 7,140 nesting females in 2007 to 1,310 in 2015) and Öland in the Baltic Sea (K. Larsson in litt. 2015). Europe (including Greenland) holds >60% of the global population (Wetlands International 2012), so the declines in Europe are globally significant.

The remainder of the population occurs in North America where population trends are variable. The Pacific population, S. m. v-nigra, which represents c. 4% of the global population is thought to have declined in the northern parts of its range between the 1980s and early 2000s,  while in central Arctic Canada and north-west Alaska it has declined, however, it appears to be increasing in the rest of Alaska (Bowman et al. 2015). The American population, S. m. dresseri, (c. 9% of the global population) shows variable trends with the northern population increasing and southern population decreasing. Trends are uncertain for the Hudson Bay, S. m. sedentaria, (c. 6% of the global population) and Northern, S. m. borealis, (c. 16% of the global population) populations. Given the strong declines in the European population and a lack of compensatory increases in the North American population the overall population trend is thought to be declining moderately rapidly.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia V Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece V Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Montenegro V Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Turkey V Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Qeqertaarsuit (Ederfugleøer)
Greenland (to Denmark) Dalrymple Rock
Greenland (to Denmark) Kingittuarsuk III
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissorsuit (Ederfugleøer)
Greenland (to Denmark) Nordfjord and adjacent valley
Greenland (to Denmark) Eqalummiut Nunaat-Nassuttuup Nunaa
Greenland (to Denmark) Ikkattoq fjord and islands
Greenland (to Denmark) Kap Brewster and Volquart Boon's coast
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Suur Väin strait
Estonia Hari Kurk strait
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Iceland Hörgárósar
Iceland Breidafjördur
Iceland Löngufjörur
Iceland Borgarfjördur
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Iceland Melrakkaslétta
Iceland Aedey
Iceland Hvalnesskridur-Thvottárskridur
Iceland Hrísey
Iceland Höfdahverfi
Iceland Skerjafjördur
Ireland Roaninish
Ireland Inishmurray
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Gnäggen Island
Sweden Bonden Island
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Sandemar
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Greece Evros delta
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Netherlands Griend
Iceland Skardsfjördur
Finland Föglö southern archipelago
Finland Lågskär-Nyhamn
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Russia (European) Ainov islands
Russia (European) Gavrilovski archipelago
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev)
Russia (European) Onega Bay of the White Sea
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay
Russia (European) Coastal belt of eastern Murmansk
Russia (European) Seven islands
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Havre de la Sienne
France Littoral Augeron
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Handa
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom St Abbs Head to Fast Castle
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Horse Island
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom North Westray Coast
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Po Delta
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Greenland (to Denmark) Booth Sund area
Greenland (to Denmark) Qilangaarsuit and adjacent islands
Greenland (to Denmark) Littleton island and nearby islets
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Greenland (to Denmark) Henrik Krøyer Holme
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Korshage, Hundested and surrounding sea area
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Marstal Bugt and the coast of south-west Langeland
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Kiel Bay and adjacent waters
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Denmark Vresen and sea area between Fyn and Langeland
Denmark Sejerø Bay and Nekselø
Denmark Sprogø and Halsskov Rev
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissut Avalliit (Ydre Kitsissut)
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Vega archipelago
Norway Tanamunningen
Norway Varangerfjord
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Skjernøy, South Skerries
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Sklinna
Norway Hornøy and Reinøy
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Runde
Norway Froan
Norway Gaulosen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northwest Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
Greenland (to Denmark) Islands and waters south and west of Upernavik town
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Obersee: Schachener Bucht
Germany Sagasbank
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Stoller Grund, Gabelsflach and Mittelgrund
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Ammersee
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Starnberger See
Germany East- and south-east coast of Fehmarn
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Eastern coast of Oldenburg: Grossenbroder Kai-Pelzerhaken
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Outer Wismarbucht
Germany Sea area Darß - Hiddensee with Plantagenetgrund
Greenland (to Denmark) Stordal-Moskusoksefjord-Badlanddal-Loch Fyne-Myggbukta
Croatia Jelas Field
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
Russia (Asian) Geka bay
Russia (Asian) Meinypylginski and Kapylgyn lakes
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) First Kuril strait
Russia (Asian) West Chaun plain
Russia (Asian) Cape Billings
Russia (Asian) Wrangel and Herald Islands
Russia (Asian) Inchoun and Uelen lagoons
Russia (Asian) Sireniki shore of Chukotka
Russia (Asian) Commander Islands
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Bulgaria Kaliakra
France Iles Chausey
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Boucle de Moisson
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
Canada The Wolves Archipelago
Canada Grand Manan Archipelago
Canada Heron Island
Canada Machias Seal Island
Canada Point Lepreau/Maces Bay
Canada Witless Bay Islands
Canada Fischot Islands
Canada Northern Groais Island
Canada Bell Island South Coast
Canada Wadham Islands and adjacent Marine Area
Canada Grates Point
Canada Cape St. Francis
Canada Mistaken Point
Canada Cape Freels Coastline and Cabot Island
Canada Eastern Shore Islands
Canada Basque Islands and Michaud Point
Canada Cape Parry
Canada Queen Maud Gulf
Canada Awrey Island
Canada Turton Island
Canada East Bay/Native Bay
Canada Fraser Island
Canada Eider Islands
Canada Plover and Payne Islands
Canada Gyrfalcon Islands
Canada Northeast Ungava Bay
Canada Koktac River Archipelago
Canada North Belcher Islands
Canada Salikuit Islands
Canada Sleeper Islands
Canada North Kent Island
Canada Cape Vera
Canada South Flaherty Islands
Canada Markham Bay Eider Colony
Canada Bonaventure Island
Canada Île Brion
Canada Shigawake-Newport
Canada Pointe Saint-Pierre et île Plate
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Îles Les Boules
Canada Marais de Pointe-au-Père
Canada Marais de la baie de L'Isle-Verte
Canada Île Bicquette
Canada Île aux Basques et Les Razades
Canada Île aux Pommes
Canada Île Blanche
Canada Îles Pèlerins
Canada Brandypot Islands
Canada Île aux Fraises
Canada Saint-Augustin Migratory Bird Sanctuary
Canada Îles Sainte-Marie
Canada Îles aux Perroquets
Canada Baie des Loups
Canada Watshishou
Canada Petite Île Sainte-Geneviève
Canada Betchouane
Canada Cayes à Meck
Canada Île Nue de Mingan
Canada La Grosse Boule Island
Canada Corossol Island
Canada Baie Comeau
Canada Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes
Canada Tadoussac
Canada Île Rouge
Canada Batture Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River
Canada Le Pilier de Pierre
Canada Le Pilier de Bois
Canada Battures aux Loups Marins
Canada Montmagny
Canada Saint-Vallier
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Waters of Île Patte de Lièvre
Canada Eaux de l'archipel de Mingan
Canada Nunaluk Spit to Herschel Island
Canada Blow River Delta (Shingle Point to Tent Island)
Ireland bog site1
Norway Persfjorden - Hamningberg
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Delta Coast
Russia (European) Terski coast
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Schlei
Germany Brodtener Ufer
Germany Sagasbank and eastern coast of Oldenburg
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Untermain
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Ireland Inishtrahull
Ireland Donegal Bay
Ireland Lough Foyle
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
USA Amchitka Island Colony
Russia (Asian) Kekurny bay
Russia (Asian) Khalpili Islands and Impoveyem Bay
Norway Slettnes
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Tautra & Svaet
Norway Været
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Midterhuken & Eholmen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordre Isfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Denmark Flensborg Fjord and Nybøl Nor
Russia (Asian) Mechigmen bay
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Norway Lofoten
Russia (Asian) Karaga bay
Russia (Asian) Signal'nyy Island
Finland Örö-Bengtskär
Iceland Andridsey
Iceland Flatey, Skjálfanda
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vaindloo island
Russia (Asian) Vankarem lowlands and Kolyuchin bay
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait
Russia (Asian) Mechigmenskiy Gulf
Russia (Asian) Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs
Estonia Lahemaa
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Russia (Asian) Lower Anadyr lowlands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Low Impact: 3
Stresses
None
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vulpes lagopus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Haliaeetus albicilla Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Scewed sex ratios, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Pasteurella multocida Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Somateria mollissima. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2020.