LC
Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 51,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 57,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 5,960,000-10,800,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 11,900,000-21,500,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c. 30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 40,000,000-72,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 40,000,000-74,999,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The overall trend is suspected to be declining. The Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme estimates the population Within Europe the population has decreased by <25% over the period 1980-2013 (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Comoros V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Mayotte (to France) V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palau V Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Artemisio and Lyrkeio mountains
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Joutsenaapa-Kaita-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Spain River Moros
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
France Plaine des Maures
France Marais de Sacy
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Slope forests in the Klostertal
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Russia (Central Asian) Shartymka valley
Russia (Central Asian) Ir valley
Russia (European) Kilemarski Reserve
Jordan Dana
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Freiwald
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Ruissalo
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Northern Black Forest
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Cuculus canorus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/08/2020.