Common Crane Grus grus


Alonso, J. C.; Alonso, J. A.; Bautista, L. M. 1994. Carrying Capacity of Staging Areas and Facultative Migration Extension in Common Cranes. Journal of Applied Ecology 31: 212-222.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. 1980. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic, Volume II: Hawks to Bustards. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Malik, J.; Prange, H. 1995. Management of the nature reserve Kremmener Luch and its effects on crane resting. In: Prange, H. (ed.), Crane research and protection in Europe, pp. 24-35. Naturschutzbund Deutschland and Umweltstiftung WWF Deutschland, Frankfurt.

Meine, C. D. and Archibald, G. W. 1996. The cranes - status survey and conservation action plan. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, U.K.

Nawaz, M.; Nawaz, Y.; Malik, M. F.; Shahabuddin. 2006. Hunting pressure and impact of Afghan refugees on migratory cranes in Pakistan. Zoos' Print Journal 21(7): 2333-2334.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

The Great Crane Project. 2014. Annual Report 2013-2014.

Urban, E.K., Fry, C.H. and Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.

Végvári, Zs. 2002. Autumn staging and habitat selection by common cranes Grus grus in the Hortobágy National Park, Hungary. Folia Zoologica 51(3): 221-225.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

International Crane Foundation Species Field Guide

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Status, Survey and Conservation Action Plan

Wildlife comeback in Europe: The recovery of selected mammal and bird species (Deinet et al. 2013)

Media resources
Euro Bird Portal

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Grus grus. Downloaded from on 20/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 20/07/2019.