LC
Common Crane Grus grus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 25,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 37,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.491,000-503,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 113,000-185,000 pairs, which equates to 225,000-370,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 490,000-504,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, however some populations are decreasing, while others are stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes Yes
Austria N Extinct Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Canada V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant
Mauritania V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea N Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Salang Kotal
Afghanistan Small Pamir
Algeria Dayette Morsli - Plaine de Remila (Dayet El Ferd)
Armenia Amasia
Armenia Tashir
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Lelchitsy-Ubort
Belarus Voronichskiy ostrov
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Ayding Kol
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Wafangdian Fuzhou Wan
China (mainland) Weinan Sanhe wetlands
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yuncheng Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Lastovo Archipelago
Croatia Middle Dalmatian Islands and Peljesac Penninsula
Croatia Mount Biokovo and Rilic
Croatia Offshore Islands
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Paramali River and Plateau
Czech Republic Ceskolipsko - Dokeské pískovce sandstones and wetlands
Czech Republic Rozdalovické rybníky ponds
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Meelva bog
Estonia Meenikunno bog
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Ohepalu
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Ethiopia Akaki - Aba-Samuel wetlands
Ethiopia Chelekleka lake and swamp
Ethiopia Koka dam and Lake Gelila
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Litokaira
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Viklinrimpi
France Arjuzanx
France Brenne centrale
France Champ de Tir du Poteau
France Col de l'Escrinet
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Etang des Landes
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Montagne de la Serre
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
Germany Luchgebiet Spaatz-Hohennauen-Witzke
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Harm lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kaftar lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Israel Hefer valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Judean desert
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Northern Arava valley
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Western Negev
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy River Sele middle valley
Jordan Azraq
Jordan Shaumari
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhaltyr Lake
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Latvia Cena bog
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Lithuania Baldieriskis forest
Lithuania Birzai forest
Lithuania Buda - Pravieniskes forest complex
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Exploited Sulinkiai peatbog
Lithuania Gruzai, Uzulenis, Taujenai, Skaistuziai and neighbouring forests complex
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Lithuania Musos tyrelis raised bog with surrounding forest
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Novaraistis State Ornithological Reserve
Lithuania Pravirsulio Tyrelis State Nature Reserve
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex
Lithuania Tyruliai State Nature Reserve
Lithuania Viesvile Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Zalioji & Gitenai forests complex
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Luxembourg Aspelt - Lannebur, am Kessel
Mongolia Airkhan Lake
Mongolia Baga and Bayan Lakes
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Morocco Barrage Idriss Premier
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section
Myanmar Mahanandar Kan
Myanmar Myitkyina-Nandebad-Talawagyi
Myanmar Yemyet Inn
Netherlands Deurnsche Peel & Mariapeel
Netherlands Engbertsdijksvenen
Netherlands Strabrechtse Heide & Beuven
Norway Dokkadelta
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Neadelta
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
Palestinian Authority Territories Jerusalem wilderness
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Barlinek Forest
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Dobskie Lake
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Dymerskie meadows
Poland Elblag Height
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Insko Site
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Orzysz Military Area
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Polesie
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Swidwie lake
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Portugal Campo Maior
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Évora plains
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal River Guadiana
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Lake Strachina
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Asian) Sayan reservoir (Tuva part)
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Baganskiye Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
Russia (Central Asian) Kocherdyksky goose zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Lakes Linejskoe and Kamyshnoe
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Nefed'yevo area and Chistogay lake
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Zdvinsky zakaznik
Russia (European) Bel'skaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Bylinskaya
Russia (European) Common Crane premigratory aggregating area near village Russkoye Maklakovo
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Russia (European) Forests, bogs and gathering of the Common Cranes near Voskresenskoye village
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Kargopol' area
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Russia (European) Klyazminski reserve
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Lake El'ton
Russia (European) Lotoshino crane gathering
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Polisto-Lovatskaya mire system
Russia (European) Ptich'ye (Bird's) Lake
Russia (European) Rakovye lakes
Russia (European) Salt lakes
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (European) Watershed between Sura and Barysh rivers
Russia (European) Zavoronezhski area
Russia (European) Zhuravlinaya
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Zasavica
Slovenia Črete
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Spain Alange
Spain Alcañiz salt lakes
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Alto Guadiato
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Borbollón reservoir
Spain Botoa-Villar del Rey
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain Cinca river rice fields and steppe area
Spain Don Benito-Guareña
Spain El Hito
Spain El Oso - Corredor del Río Adaja
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Entrepeñas and Buendía reservoirs
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes
Spain Gabriel y Galán reservoir
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain La Serena
Spain Lácara-Morante
Spain Laguna del Cañizar
Spain Montánchez mountain range-Cornalvo reservoir
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Pedroches Occidentales
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Puebla de Beleña lagoons
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Spain Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain Siruela-Agudo
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Tietar valley
Spain Tormos reservoir (La Sotonera)
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Valdehornillos-Santa Amalia
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Villanueva del Fresno
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Bog of Dumme
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Lake Hallbo
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lake Vendel
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Syria Golan Heights
Tajikistan Dangara massif
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Tajikistan Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve
Tunisia Sebkhet Halk el Menzel
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Tunisia Sebkhet Sidi el Hani
Tunisia Sebkhet Sidi Mansour
Turkey Acıgöl Lake
Turkey Ağrı Plain
Turkey Akdoğan Mountain
Turkey Amanos Mountains
Turkey Ardahan forest
Turkey Batmış Lake (Cil Lake)
Turkey Bendimahi Delta
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains
Turkey Çaldıran Plain
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Turkey Çiçekli Lakes
Turkey Çöl Lake and Çalıkdüzü
Turkey Doğubayazıt Marshes
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Turkey Ekşisu Marshes
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes
Turkey Girdev Lake and Akdağlar
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Hafik Zara Hills
Turkey Kars Plain
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Mogan lake
Turkey Sarısu Plain
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Tersakan Lake
Turkey Tuz Lake
Turkey Upper Murat Valley
Turkey Yeniçağa Lake
Turkey Yüksekova
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Turkmenistan Tejen
Ukraine Agricultural lands near Bilorets'ke (Chornozemne village)
Ukraine Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Cheremske mire
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar)
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kajiry village)
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands)
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Vasylivka village)
Ukraine Mazepyn Yar
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Snake island
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Uzh river valley
United Kingdom Broadland
Uzbekistan Achinskoe Lake
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez
Uzbekistan Arnasay Lake System
Uzbekistan Chimkurgan Reservoir
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Other
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Grus grus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2017.