Common Barn-owl Tyto alba


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 355 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 330,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4000000-9999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.2 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 111,000-230,000 pairs, which equates to 222,000-460,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 5% of the global range so a very preliminary estimate of the global population is 4,400,000-9,200,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 4,000,000-9,999,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. The European population trend is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
American Samoa N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia V Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
French Guiana N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Monaco N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Niue (to New Zealand) N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Samoa N Extant Yes
San Marino N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles I Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Lucia N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tonga N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Romania Dobron forest
Slovenia Reka valley
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Ikaria island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Thessaly plain
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Northeastern peninsula of Crete
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Inner Somogy
Spain River Moros
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain La Mola of Formentera
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Santo Domingo coastal cliffs
Spain Centinela mountain and La Esquina plain
Spain Frontera laurel forest
Spain Lanzarote islets
Spain Haría-Tabayesco
Spain El Mojón
Spain Tenegüime gully
Spain Los Molinos gully-Plain of La Laguna
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares
Spain El Médano coast
Spain Pozo Negro mountain-Vigán
Spain Island of Lobos
France Montagne de la Serre
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Plaine des Maures
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Rinns of Islay
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Taro river
Italy Laga mountains
Italy Vico lake
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Cicolano
Italy Diaccia Botrona
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czechia Doupov hills
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Cer mountain
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn
Switzerland Klingnau reservoir
Switzerland Lowlands of Zurich and lower valley of the river Thur
Switzerland La Brévine and Les Ponts-de-Martel
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Vorderer Steigerwald - Windsheimer Bucht - Steigerwald-Vorland
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Federseeried
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Northern Wetterau
Portugal Tejo estuary
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Les Couzes Nord
France Les Couzes Sud
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Vallée du Régino
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Forêt de Chaux
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Plateau de Delme, Val de Petite Seille
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Massif des Albères
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Minervois
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Montagnes de Marcou, de l'Espinouse et du Caroux
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Forêt du Gavre
France La Dombes
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Basse Ardêche
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary)
Canada Somenos Marsh Wildlife Refuge
Canada Osoyoos Oxbows
Canada Vaseux Lake Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Bahamas Sandy Point
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Ticino river
Bahamas Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park
Bahamas Allan's Cays
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Wetterau
Poland Warta River Mouth
Colombia El Encanto de Guanapalo

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas marginal resident
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist marginal resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands marginal resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Shrub Dominated Wetlands suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Tyto alba. Downloaded from on 27/01/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/01/2023.