LC
Collared Sand Martin Riparia riparia



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 101,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 130,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000000-500000000 medium suspected 2015
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 3,640,000-8,000,000 pairs, which equates to 7,280,000-16,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Therefore it is likely that the global population falls in the band 10,000,000-500,000,000 mature individuals. National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan, and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Comoros V Extant
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Lucia N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Labudovo okno
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Zachodniaja Biarezina
Estonia Kallaste-Kodavere coast
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Latvia Zile forest area
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Satchinez marsh
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Tyrnavos area
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Hungary Upper Tisza
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Danube bend
Hungary Pacsmag Lakes of Regöly
Hungary Szatmár-Bereg
Hungary Inner Somogy
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Spain River Ebro ox-bow lakes
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Pointe de Grave
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Mars sur Allier
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
United Kingdom Dorset Heaths and Forests
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Pettigoe Plateau
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Piave river
Italy Taro river
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Ticino river
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Middle course of River Brenta
Italy Stirone stream
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Czechia Poodri
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Slovakia Morava
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Poiplie
Slovakia Medzibodrožie
Slovakia Spišská Magura
Slovakia Jurský Chlm
Slovakia Streda nad Bodrogom
Serbia Vlasina
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Heideboden
Poland Barycz river valley
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany East- and south-east coast of Fehmarn
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Eastern coast of Oldenburg: Grossenbroder Kai-Pelzerhaken
Germany Brodtener Ufer
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Gimbsheim-Eicher Altrhein und Fischsee
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Rhein: Greffern-Murgmündung-Neuburgweier
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Plothen ponds
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Spreewald
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Alluvion of the Lower Schwalm near Borken
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Philippsburger Altrhein and Rheinschanzinsel
Germany Northern Karlsruhe Hardt
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Rhine flats Haltingen - Neuenburg and foothills
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Estonia Räpina polder
Germany Sagasbank and eastern coast of Oldenburg
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Elbaue Mühlberg
Germany Lausitz mining areas
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Eich-Gimbsheimer Altrhein, northern oxbow
Germany Eich-Gimbsheimer Altrhein, southern oxbow
Germany Rhine flats between mouth of Rench and mouth of Murg
Germany Rhine flats Elchesheim-Karlsruhe
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Île Deslauriers
Canada Marais de Saint-Timothée
Canada Fife Lake
Russia (European) Valley of Zhizdra river
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Prostyr
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Peipsi
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtuguz Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Lower Sola River Valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine River Tysa Valley
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Guyana Ireng River
Guyana North Rupununi-Karanambu Ranch
Guyana Crane Pond- Rupununi River
Russia (European) Tishskaya Dal' area
Belarus Dniepr floodplain Lojeŭ-Žary
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Serbia Titelski breg
Serbia Gornje Pomoravlje
Serbia Donje Podrinje
Slovenia Spodnja Sava
Slovenia Srednja Sava
Belarus Polesye valley of river Buh
Uzbekistan Arnasay Lake System
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Estonia Lahemaa
Mauritania Lac de Mâl
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Chott Boul
Serbia Gornje Potisje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Nevesinjsko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostarsko Blato

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Riparia riparia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/01/2021.