LC
Coal Tit Periparus ater



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be decreasing however it is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 15,900,000-28,800,000 pairs, which equates to 31,800,000-57,500,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.35% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 90,850,000-164,290,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification
The population is estimated to be fluctuating based on records of regional trends in recent years (del Hoyo et al. 2007).The European population is estimated to have experienced a moderate decline between 1980 and 2013 (EBCC 2015).

Ecology

This species occupies conifer forests of various compositions and structure (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). It uses spruce (Picea), mixed forest often dominated by birch (Betula) and in pine (Pinus) and larch (Larix) in Siberia. In Europe it is often found in conifer plantations and in urban and suburban areas with small numbers of conifers. Outside the breeding season it uses similar habitats, but is also more frequently found in deciduous woodland, parks and gardens. The breeding season is from the end of March to late July and it breeds later in the north of its range than in the south. The nest is cup-shaped and made almost entirely of moss, some animal hair and wool with some feathers incorporated. It is placed in a hole or cavity in a tree trunk or old stump, but sometimes it also uses a hole or crevice in a wall or rocks, in the ground under stones or a nestbox. Clutches are five to thirteen eggs. It feeds on invertebrates, seeds and sap and will visit bird tables and feeders. It has also learnt to pierce or open milk-bottle tops to take cream. The species is resident or makes short-distance altitudinal movements in south and west of the range. Northern and eastern populations move longer distances (Gosler and Clement 2007).

Threats

Declines in central Europe are due to large-scale reductions in arthropods caused by industrial pollution and acid rain (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997, Gosler and Clement 2007).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. Subspecies Parus ater cypriotes is listed under Annex I of the EU Birds Directive. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.

Conservation Actions Proposed
The species would benefit from a reduction in industrial emissions.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Calvert, R., Symes, A., Ashpole, J


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Periparus ater. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017.