Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 19 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 27,400,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 13,600,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2000000-4999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.7 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 162,000-373,000 pairs, which equates to 323,000-746,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 2,150,000-4,980,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The global population is therefore here placed in the band 2,000,000-4,999,999 mature individuals. The population in China has been estimated at 100-10,000 breeding pairs and < 1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015). In the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats, the overall population is therefore estimated to be increasing.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bhutan V Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece V Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary V Extant
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy V Extant
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Malawi V Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles V Extant
Singapore V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
South Africa V Extant
South Korea V Extant
Spain V Extant
Sri Lanka V Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Cyprus Phasouri reedbeds
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Poland Puck Bay
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Zingeika lake
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Karamys lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tarutino Lake
Afghanistan Bande Amir
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Kyrgyzstan Karkyra Valley
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Estonia Luitemaa
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Ushkol Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland marginal breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Motacilla citreola. Downloaded from on 24/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/09/2020.