Cinnabar Boobook Ninox ios


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Rasmussen, P. C. 1999. A new species of Hawk-owl (Ninox) from North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Wilson Bulletin 111: 457-464.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Least Concern
2016 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 193,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown poor not applicable 0
Population trend stable poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.24 - - -

Population justification: The population was previously (in 2003) estimated preliminarily to fall in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, however no species-specific density is known, and the species is now known to be considerably more widespread than formerly thought. It is described as locally common (Berryman and Eaton 2020, Eaton et al. 2021) and four birds heard calling along a 1-km transect on a forest track in the Mekongga mountains in south-east Sulawesi indicate the species may, at least locally, be capable of occurring at a relatively high density (A. Berryman in litt. 2021). Consequently, although the population is unknown, it is not suspected to approach the thresholds for listing as threatened.

Trend justification: Given this species' occurrence in montane forests, encroachment by agriculture and timber extraction has been minimal in its range. Global Forest Watch (2021) data, using Hansen et al. (2013) methods and data disclosed therein, suggest that forest loss in its range has been minimal (c.2.5% over three generations: 12.7 years, Bird et al. 2020) and is not necessarily above the rate of natural flux. The population is therefore suspected to be stable, but may decline if forest loss begins to encroach on higher elevation forest.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Bogani Nani Wartabone
Indonesia Gunung Simbalang

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1100 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Ninox ios. Downloaded from on 07/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 07/06/2023.