NT
Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened C1
2016 Near Threatened C1
2013 Near Threatened C1
2012 Near Threatened C1
2008 Near Threatened C1
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 36,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 15600-21000 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16 - - -

Population justification: Its global population is estimated to number 7,800-10,500 pairs, roughly equating to 15,600-21,000 mature individuals. This consists of 2,300-2,500 pairs in Europe (BirdLife International 2004, Anon. 2004) and 5,500-8,000 pairs in Asia (Anon. 2004). The population in Korea has been estimated at c.50-10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009). The estimate roughly equates to 23,400-31,500 individuals.

Trend justification: Although the European population is increasing, the much larger Asian population appears to be in decline. Overall, a slow to moderate and on-going decline is suspected.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania U Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cambodia V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant
Cyprus N Extinct Yes
Czechia V Extinct Yes
Egypt V Extant Yes
France R Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extinct Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan V Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Malaysia V Extant
Moldova N Extinct Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant
Morocco U Extant
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extinct Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia N Extinct Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand V Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Crna gorge
Azerbaijan Turianchai
Georgia Ritsa
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Azerbaijan Mount Bazar-Duzu
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Mount Dalidag
Azerbaijan Mount Giamysh
Azerbaijan Ilisu area
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Kusari (Gusari) area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Azerbaijan Shahbuz area
Azerbaijan Mount Shahdag
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Malcata mountains
Bulgaria Madzharovo
Turkey Murat Mountain
Turkey Akdağ - Çivril
Turkey Türkmenbaba Mountain
Turkey Kızılcahamam Forests
Turkey Köroğlu Mountains
Turkey Sündiken Mountains
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains [incl Karcal Mountains]
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Russia (European) Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains
Russia (European) Caucasus Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Lower Urushten river
Russia (European) Akhmet-Skala ridge
Russia (European) Valley of Urup river
Russia (European) Uttinskaya area
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Madrona and Andújar mountain ranges
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Spain Sierra Pelada mountain range
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Monfragüe
Spain East Gata mountain range
Spain Toledo mountains-Cabañeros
Spain Canalizos mountain range (Saceruela)
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Alto Lozoya-La Pedriza
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain Peña de Francia
Spain River Moros
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range
Spain Tietar valley
Spain Aldeaquemada-Dañador
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain West Andévalo
Spain Gabriel y Galán reservoir
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Iruelas valley
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Plasencia and San Bernabé mountain range
Spain Lácara-Morante
Spain Las Contiendas mountain range
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
Ukraine Bilogir'ya
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Serbia Sara mountain
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Turkey İğdır Plain
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Syria Golan Heights
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sarani
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mooteh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Syria Jabal Abdul Aziz
Russia (European) Kebyaktepe ridge
Russia (European) Samurski ridge
Russia (European) Kasumkentski reserve
Russia (European) Berkubinski forest
Russia (European) Orota depression
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
South Korea Yeonchon
South Korea Cheolwon basin
Georgia Kazbegi
Georgia Khevsureti
Georgia Tusheti
Georgia Lagodekhi
Russia (European) Talginskaya Valley
Russia (Central Asian) Korgonskaya
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Russia (Central Asian) Talduair mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) Tundyt mountain
Afghanistan Salang Kotal
Afghanistan Kole Hashmat Khan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kiamaki Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Incheh Borun lake and marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khosh-Yeilagh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Touran
Iran, Islamic Republic of Tandoureh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-i Gaz
Iran, Islamic Republic of Telesm plain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bamou National Park
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Jordan Madaba - Hisban
Jordan Dana
Kuwait Jal Az-Zor
Kuwait Al-Jahra Pool Nature Reserve
Saudi Arabia At-Tubayq
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Saudi Arabia Mahazat as-Sayd
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Uzbekistan Mount Aktau
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Assy Plateau
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge
Uzbekistan Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Angren Plateau
Uzbekistan Nuratau Range
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Bukantau Mountain Range
Uzbekistan Amankutan (Takhtakaracha Pass)
Uzbekistan Dzhum-Dzhum
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Turkmenistan Koytendag
Turkmenistan Sumbar
Turkmenistan Dushakerekdag
Turkmenistan Kurtusuv - Khovudan
Turkmenistan Gurykhovudan
Ukraine Ivanivka vallage
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz
Tajikistan Kondara Gorge
Tajikistan Iskanderkul lake and mountains
Kazakhstan Almaty State Nature Reserve
Turkmenistan Garachop
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Tajikistan Mogoltau massif
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tajikistan Dashtidjum
Russia (European) Right coast of Malaya Laba River
Russia (European) Sources of Kuna and Shisha rivers
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Verkhnechegemskaya depression
Russia (European) Chegemskoye ravine
Russia (European) Ravine of Eshkakon river
Russia (European) Sources of the Podkumok river
Russia (European) Malka river ravine
Russia (European) Sources of Khudes river
Uzbekistan Central section of the Kurama Mountain Range
Uzbekistan Tereklisay section of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Pulatkhan Gorge
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Uzbekistan Oygaing River Valley
Uzbekistan Darasay Gorge
Uzbekistan Middle reaches of the Sherabad River
Uzbekistan South-west Gizzar Foothills
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Garabil
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Uzbekistan Gissar State Nature Reserve
Turkmenistan Tejen
Turkmenistan Uly Balkan
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Russia (European) Gunibskoye plateau
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Russia (European) Valley of Gizel'don river
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Turkey Sarıkamış Forest
Turkey Şemdinli Valley
Turkey Ardahan forest
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Afghanistan Big Pamir
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Nepal Nawalparasi forests
Nepal Phulchoki Mountain forests
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Dang Deukhuri foothill forests and west Rapti wetlands
Nepal Dharan forests
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area
Nepal Khaptad National Park
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Langtang National Park
Nepal Mai Valley forests
Nepal Sagarmatha National Park
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain El Rebollar
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Turkmenistan Kurendag - Garagoz
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Garashor
Turkmenistan Repetek
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Turkmenistan Uzboy
Serbia Ozren-Jadovnik
Serbia Uvac

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Altitude 300 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 4900 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aegypius monachus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/07/2020.