Chukar Alectoris chukar


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 19,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 5000000-34999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -

Population justification: Rich et al. (2004) have estimated the global population to number c.2,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 488,000-1,680,000 pairs, which equates to 975,000-3,370,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.10% of the global range, so a revised estimate of the global population size is c. 9,000,000-34,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in China has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: In Europe the small population is estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% in 11.7 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). In Lebanon the population is considered locally reduced. Elsewhere the population is suspected to be stable or locally increasing (McGowan and Kirwan 2016).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain I Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada I Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
France I Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany I Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy I Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
North Macedonia I Extant Yes
Norway I Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Portugal I Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
South Africa I Extant Yes
Spain I Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) I Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Turianchai
Azerbaijan Pirgulu (Pirkuli)
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Mount Dalidag
Azerbaijan Gobustan area
Azerbaijan Mount Ilandag
Azerbaijan Mount Kargabazar and Mount Gush-gaya
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Negram mountains
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Azerbaijan Zuvand upland
Cyprus Cape Greco
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Mount Kedros and Kourtaliotiko gorge, Crete
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Thrypti and Orno mountains, Crete
Greece Northern Sifnos
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Serifos island
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Mount Kerkis, Samos
Greece Saria island and northern Karpathos
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Northeastern peninsula of Crete
Greece Gavdos and Gavdopoula islands, Crete
Russia (European) Alagirskoye i Kurtatinskoye ravines (Severo-Osetinski (North Osetin) Nature Reserve)
Russia (European) Kabardino-Balkarski Nature Reserve
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Alaçatı
Russia (European) Samurski ridge
Armenia Gndasar
Armenia Jermook
Armenia Noravank
Jordan Dana
Saudi Arabia Jabal al-Lawz
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Alai
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river
Mongolia Khokh Serkhiin Nuruu
Mongolia Tsengel Khairkhan Mountain
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Ezousa Valley and Cliffs
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Kormakitis Peninsula
Cyprus Pentadaktylos Mountains
Kazakhstan Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Arystandy
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Alectoris chukar. Downloaded from on 08/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 08/02/2023.