Chukar Alectoris chukar


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 19,400,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 5000000-34999999 mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend stable - suspected -
Generation length 3.9 years - - -

Population justification: Rich et al. (2004) have estimated the global population to number c.2,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 488,000-1,680,000 pairs, which equates to 975,000-3,370,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.10% of the global range, so a revised estimate of the global population size is c. 9,000,000-34,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in China has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: In Europe the small population is estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% in 11.7 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). In Lebanon the population is considered locally reduced. Elsewhere the population is suspected to be stable or locally increasing (McGowan and Kirwan 2016).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant native yes
Armenia extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahrain extant introduced yes
Bulgaria extant native yes
Canada extant introduced
China (mainland) extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Egypt extant native
France extant introduced yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant introduced yes
Greece extant native yes
India extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Israel extant native yes
Italy extant introduced yes
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Nepal extant native yes
New Zealand extant introduced yes
North Macedonia extant introduced yes
Norway extant introduced yes
Oman extant native yes
Pakistan extant native yes
Palestine extant native yes
Portugal extant introduced yes
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant vagrant
Russia (European) extant native yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
South Africa extant introduced yes
Spain extant introduced yes
St Helena (to UK) extant introduced
Syria extant native yes
Tajikistan extant native yes
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes
USA extant introduced yes
Uzbekistan extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Turianchai
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Russia (European) Samurski ridge
Armenia Gndasar
Armenia Jermook
Armenia Noravank
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Ezousa Valley and Cliffs
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Kormakitis Peninsula
Cyprus Pentadaktylos Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Alectoris chukar. Downloaded from on 28/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/02/2024.