VU
Christmas Boobook Ninox natalis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Ninox squamipila, N. hypogramma, N. hantu and N. forbesi (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as N. squamipila following Norman et al. (1998), and before then were also lumped with N. natalis as N. squamipila following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Norman, J. A.; Christidis, L.; Westerman, M.; Hill, F. A. R. 1998. Molecular data confirms the species status of the Christmas Island Hawk-owl Ninox natalis. Emu 98: 197-208.
Norman, J. A.; Christidis, L.; Westerman, M.; Hill, F. A. R. 1998. Molecular data confirms the species status of the Christmas Island Hawk-owl Ninox natalis. Emu 98: 197-208.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable D2
2013 Vulnerable D2
2012 Vulnerable D2
2008 Vulnerable D2
2007 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Critically Endangered
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 240 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000 good estimated 2004
Population trend Stable poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.1 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated at c.1,000 mature individuals (Hill and Lill 1998, D. James in litt. 2004, 2005, Garnett et al. 2011).

Trend justification: No hard data are available, but a negligible decline or stable trends are suspected because the species appears to adapt fairly well to secondary habitats. Control of the ants may have allowed the species's population to stabilise (S. Garnett in litt. 2005), although there is no evidence of past declines or fluctuations (D. James in litt. 2007).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Anoplolepis gracilipes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Ninox natalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2021.