LC
Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antarcticus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2010 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 45,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 8000000 poor suspected 1999
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.9 - - -

Population justification:

Convey et al. (1999) estimate a world population of ~4 million breeding pairs.

Trend justification: The species expanded its range and its population in the mid-20th century, potentially owing to increased prey (krill) availability (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It is currently decreasing at most sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, except at the southern extreme of its range where it is increasing. It is stable at South Sandwich Island (Lynch et al. 2016). The population trend is unknown at many other locations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant
Australia V Extant
Bouvet Island (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
French Southern Territories N Extant
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) V Extant
New Zealand V Extant
South Africa V Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Sandwich Islands
Argentina Islas Sandwich del Sur
Antarctica Rosenthal Islands
Antarctica Powell Island - Marine
Antarctica Signy Island - Marine
Antarctica Monroe - Marine
Antarctica Baily Head, Deception Island
Antarctica Vapour Col, Deception Island
Antarctica Pottinger Point, King George Island
Antarctica Heywood Island
Antarctica False Round Point, King George Island
Antarctica Cape Garry, Low Island
Antarctica Cape Wallace, Low Island
Antarctica Cape Bowles, Clarence Island
Antarctica Sugarloaf Island, Clarence Island
Antarctica Larsen Islands / Moreton Point
Antarctica Harmony Point, Nelson Island
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Sandwich Islands - Marine
Antarctica Coronation Island, Sandfjord Bay
Antarctica Duroch Islands
Antarctica Gibbon Bay, Coronation Island
Antarctica Eillium Island
Antarctica Pirie Peninsula, Laurie Island
Antarctica Ferguslie Peninsula, Laurie Island
Antarctica Watson Peninsula, Laurie Island
Antarctica Fraser Point, Laurie Island
Antarctica Buchanan Point, Laurie Island
Antarctica Cape Whitson, Laurie Island
Antarctica Point Martin, Laurie Island
Antarctica Cape Robertson, Laurie Island
Antarctica Southern Powell Island and adjacent islands
Antarctica Robertson Islands
Antarctica Signy Island
Antarctica Moe Island
Antarctica Gosling Islands
Antarctica Return Point / Cheal Point, Coronation Island
Antarctica Craggy Point, Clarence Island
Antarctica Chinstrap Cove, Clarence Island
Antarctica Seal Islands
Antarctica Saddleback Point, Elephant Island
Antarctica Point W of Walker Point, Elephant Island
Antarctica Mount Elder, Elephant Island
Antarctica Point W of Cape Lookout, Elephant Island
Antarctica Stinker Point, Elephant Island
Antarctica Gibbs Island
Antarctica Aspland Island / Eadie Island
Antarctica O’Brien Island
Antarctica Eastern Litwin Bay, King George Island
Antarctica Tartar Island, King George Island
Antarctica Kellick Island, King George Island
Antarctica Owen Island, King George Island
Antarctica Milosz Point / Czeslaw Point, King George Island
Antarctica North Foreland, King George Island
Antarctica West Admiralty Bay, King George Island
Antarctica Barnard Point, Livingston Island
Antarctica Cape Hooker, Low Island
Antarctica Jameson Point, Low Island
Antarctica Tupinier Islands
Antarctica Cape Melville, King George Island
Antarctica Admiralty Bay and adjacent waters
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Sandwich Islands 2 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Sandwich Islands 1 - Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Geological events Volcanoes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Pygoscelis antarcticus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2020.