VU
Chestnut-collared Longspur Calcarius ornatus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bc+3bc+4bc

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable A2bc+3bc+4bc
2017 Vulnerable A2bc+3bc+4bc
2016 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2012 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c; A3b,c; A4b,c
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 20 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,150,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,880,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3100000 medium estimated 2019
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: Partners in Flight (2019) currently estimate the population to number 3.1 million mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a large decline, measured at ~85% between 1970 and 2014 by Partners in Flight (Rosenberg et al. 2016), whom currently estimate the species to be declining at a rate of 4.38% per year, or 36.1% across a ten year period (Partners in Flight 2019). The Breeding Bird Survey also note a ~88.8% decrease since 1966 (Sauer et al. 2016) and estimate current annual declines of ~3.22% between 2010-2017 (Pardieck et al. 2018). Whilst only equable to a 27.9% decline across a ten year period, the Christmas Bird Count however suggest that the rate of decline may be higher (Meehan et al. 2018) and as such, in agreement with the Partners in Flight (2019) estimate, the rate of population decline is placed in the band, 30-49%. Declines are most pronounced in Canada where the species is estimated to have declined by more than 95% between 1970-2017, with short-term population declines reaching 52.9% per decade between 2007-2017 at rate of ~7.2% per year, peaking in Alberta at ~11.8% per year (COSEWIC 2019, Smith et al. 2019).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Canada N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Govenlock-Nashlyn-Battle Creek Grasslands
Mexico Janos - Nuevo Casas Grandes
Mexico Pradera de Tokio
USA North Valley Grasslands
USA Westby Prairie-Wetland Complex
Mexico Santiaguillo
USA San Rafael Grasslands
USA Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge
USA Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge
Mexico Cuchillas de la Zarca
Mexico Laguna de Bustillos
Mexico Laguna de Mexicanos
Mexico Complejo de Humedales del Noroeste de Chihuahua

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 1000 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Calcarius ornatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2022.