Caucasian Snowcock Tetraogallus caucasicus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 62,600
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-32000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -

Population justification: The breeding population, which is confined to Europe, was estimated to number 3,300-13,500 pairs, which equates to 6,700-27,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Further information from Georgia suggests the number of pairs there may be 500-3,000 (B. Verhelst in litt. 2017), which would put the breeding population in the range of 3,300-16,000 pairs. This equates to 6,600-32,000 mature individuals. The population is therefore placed in the band 6,000-32,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Azerbaijan Mount Bazar-Duzu
Azerbaijan Mount Shahdag
Azerbaijan Zakataly
Georgia Gumista
Georgia Khevsureti
Georgia Lagodekhi
Georgia Liakhvi
Georgia Pskhu
Georgia Racha
Georgia Ritsa
Georgia Svaneti
Georgia Tusheti
Russia (European) Alagirskoye i Kurtatinskoye ravines (Severo-Osetinski (North Osetin) Nature Reserve)
Russia (European) Alaniya National Park
Russia (European) Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains
Russia (European) Caucasus Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Digoriya rocks
Russia (European) Kabardino-Balkarski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kebyaktepe ridge
Russia (European) Khulamskoye ravine
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve
Russia (European) Malka river ravine
Russia (European) Priel'brus'ye National Park
Russia (European) Ravine of Eshkakon river
Russia (European) Samurski ridge
Russia (European) Shanskoye ravine
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park
Russia (European) Sources of Khudes river
Russia (European) Targimskaya intermountain
Russia (European) Teberdinski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Tlyaratinski reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Altitude 1800 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Tetraogallus caucasicus. Downloaded from on 17/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/11/2019.