LC
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 394,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 431,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.1 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 4,000,000-9,850,000 individuals. The European population is estimated at 76,100-92,300 pairs, which equates to 152,000-185,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 4,000,000-9,999,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable, decreasing or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. The European population is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 24.3 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan U Extant
Albania V Extant
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antarctica V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory I Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria V Extinct Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) V Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany V Extant
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Grenada N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica I Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) V Extant
New Zealand N Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) V Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia V Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) V Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan V Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Algeria Bou Redim
Argentina Reserva de Uso Múltiple Bañados del Río Dulce y Laguna Mar Chiquita
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Cameroon Logone flood-plain
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Indonesia Dataran Banjir Ogan Komering
Indonesia Pulau Dua
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Israel Carmel coast
Israel Hefer valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley
Israel Zevulun valley
Kenya Tana River Delta
Mali Kouakourou
Mali Koumbé Niasso
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mali Timisobo - Képagou
Mexico Pantanos de Centla
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg
Nicaragua Bluefields Bay and adjacent landscape
Nicaragua Juan Venado Island
Niger Tchérassa reservoir
Philippines Manila Bay
Portugal Murta dam
Portugal Paul do Taipal
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Umm al-Qamari
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system)
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Almenara marshes
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Azután reservoir
Spain Borbollón reservoir
Spain Bornos reservoir
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain Castronuño-Zamora
Spain Ceuta
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Spain La Janda
Spain La Serena
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Malpica island (River Tagus)
Spain Medas islands
Spain Medina-Sidonia
Spain Mérida-Montijo reservoir
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain River Ebro ox-bow lakes
Spain River Mijares mouth
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Tajo de Barbate coastal cliffs
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Vegas del Alagón
Tanzania Wembere steppe
Trinidad and Tobago Caroni Swamp
Yemen Al-Murah
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Mweru Wantipa National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable passage
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4080 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Bubulcus ibis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/12/2019.