Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia


Taxonomic note
Hydroprogne caspia (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Sterna.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 226,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 187,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.250,000-470,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 11,800-14,800 pairs, which equates to 23,600-29,600 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations are decreasing, stable, or have unknown trends (Delany & Scott 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (266% increase over 40 years, equating to a 38.3% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extinct Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica V Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant
Jamaica N Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestine N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Abruka island
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare coast
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Latvia Engure lake
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Sweden Lake Östen
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lake Storhjälmaren
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Dannskär – Örskär Islands
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Pisz forest
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Finland Föglö southern archipelago
Finland Lågskär-Nyhamn
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Valaamski archipelago
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Maly Zhemchuzhny island
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
France Domaine d'Orx
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Camargue
France Basse vallée du Var
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Slovakia Zemplínska Šírava
Turkey Tuz Lake
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Egypt Hurghada archipelago
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site
Gambia Niumi National Park
Gambia Tanbi wetland complex
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Gambia Allahein to Kartung coast
Guinea Iles Tristao
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Kenya Tana River Delta
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Mali Lac Horo
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mauritania Cap Blanc
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Mauritania Chott Boul
Mauritania Diawling National Park
Namibia Walvis Bay
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie
Senegal La Petite Côte
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Senegal Delta du Saloum
South Africa Lake St Lucia and Mkuze Swamps
South Africa Berg River Estuary
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Turkey Keban Reservoir
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Duqm
Oman Khawr Ghawi
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Yemen Aden
Yemen Bahr Ibn Abbas - Ra's Isa
Vietnam Binh Dai
Russia (European) Dolgy Reef and Bol'shoi Fiskar archipelagos
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Colombia Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca and Sabana Grande RAMSAR biosphere reserve
Colombia Reserva de Biósfera Seaflower
Taiwan, China Budai Wetlands
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Topol'noye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Chanovskaya lake system
Bulgaria Galata
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Pointe de Grave
France Etang du Bagnas
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaire de la Loire
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Canada Lake Newell and Kitsim Reservoir
Canada Hays Reservoir
Canada Lac La Biche
Canada Kaweenakumik Lake
Canada Little George Island
Canada Lake St. Martin Islands
Canada Sand Reef Islands
Canada Spruce Island Reef
Canada North Arm, Great Slave Lake
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park
Canada The Watchers
Canada The Cousins
Canada St. Mary's River Complex (Echo Bay ON to Maxton Bay MI)
Canada Hamilton Harbour Waterbird Colonies
Canada Leslie Street Spit
Canada Pigeon Island
Canada Limestone Islands
Canada Akimiski Strait
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Île de l'Est
Canada Saint-Augustin Migratory Bird Sanctuary
Canada Réserve nationale de faune des Îles-de-Contrecoeur
Bahrain Tubli Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bushire Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nakhilu, Morghu and Ummal Karam islands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Yemen Abdullah Gharib lagoons
Qatar Khor al-Udeid
Cambodia Boeung Prek Lapouv
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island
Sweden Bay of Strandstugu
Sweden Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Bahrain Hawar Islands
Mexico Humedales Costeros del Norte de la Península de Yucatán
Serbia Becej fishpond
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Australia Paroo Floodplain and Currawinya
Turkey Bendimahi Delta
Turkey Keban Islands
Turkey South Keban Dam
Australia Lake Eyre
Australia Strzelecki Desert Lakes
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
South Africa Swartkops Estuary - Redhouse and Chatty Saltpans
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Black Sea
New Zealand Lake Ellesmere
New Zealand Farewell Spit
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Jamaica Font Hill
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Colombia Reserva de Biosfera RAMSAR Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca y Sabana Grande - Marine
South Africa Bird Island / Dassen Island / Heuningnes river and estuary system / Lower Berg river wetlands - Marine
South Africa Lake St Lucia and Mkuze swamps - marine
Egypt Hurghada archipelago - Marine
Senegal Delta du Saloum - Marine
Guinea-Bissau Île Alcatraz et Île du Naufrage - Marine
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park - Marine
Namibia Walvis Bay / Cape Cross lagoon / 30-Kilometre Beach: Walvis - Swakopmund - Marine
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie - marine
USA East Sand Island
South Africa Cape Whale Coast
South Africa Barberspan and Leeupan
South Africa Verlorenvlei Estuary
Yemen Islands north of Al-Hudaydah
South Africa Ndumo Game Reserve
New Zealand Ashburton River
New Zealand Hopkins Dobson Rivers
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Madagascar Three Bays Complex
Kazakhstan Ural River Valley
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Senegal Delta du Saloum - marine
Gambia Delta du Saloum – Niumi – Tanbi
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós - marine
Greece Valtou mountains
Netherlands Haringvliet
United Arab Emirates Al Zorah (Khor Ajman)
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
China (mainland) Xiamen coast
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Labudovo okno
Guinea-Bissau Rio Cacheu
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
Senegal Parc National de Basse Casamance
Senegal Kalissaye Avifaunal Reserve
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Narta Lagoon
Mexico Cuitzeo
Albania Lake Butrinti
Albania Lalzi Bay
Ecuador Ciénaga de La Segua

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Hydroprogne caspia. Downloaded from on 29/01/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 29/01/2023.