LC
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Hydroprogne caspia (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Sterna.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 226,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 187,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.250,000-470,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 11,800-14,800 pairs, which equates to 23,600-29,600 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations are decreasing, stable, or have unknown trends (Delany & Scott 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (266% increase over 40 years, equating to a 38.3% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extinct Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica V Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant
Jamaica N Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Lake Eyre
Australia Paroo Floodplain and Currawinya
Australia Strzelecki Desert Lakes
Canada Lake St. Martin Islands
Canada Limestone Islands
Canada Little George Island
Canada Pigeon Island
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park
Canada Sand Reef Islands
Canada Spruce Island Reef
Canada The Cousins
Canada The Watchers
Colombia Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca and Sabana Grande RAMSAR biosphere reserve
Egypt Hurghada archipelago
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Väinameri
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
France Camargue
Gambia Allahein to Kartung coast
Gambia Delta du Saloum – Niumi – Tanbi
Gambia Niumi National Park
Gambia Tanbi wetland complex
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Guinea Iles Tristao
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Guinea-Bissau Bijagós – marine
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Kenya Tana River Delta
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mali Lac Horo
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mauritania Cap Blanc
Mauritania Chott Boul
Mauritania Diawling National Park
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Mexico Humedales Costeros del Norte de la Península de Yucatán
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Namibia Walvis Bay
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Duqm
Oman Khawr Ghawi
Oman Masirah island
Romania Black Sea
Romania Danube Delta
Russia (Central Asian) Chanovskaya lake system
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Dolgy Reef and Bol'shoi Fiskar archipelagos
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Russia (European) Valaamski archipelago
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Delta du Saloum – marine
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Senegal La Petite Côte
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie - marine
South Africa Berg River Estuary
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island
Sweden Bay of Strandstugu
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Sweden Lake Storhjälmaren
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Taiwan, China Budai Wetlands
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Keban Islands
Turkey South Keban Dam
Turkey Tuz Lake
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Syvash Bay
United Arab Emirates Al Zora (Khor Ajman)
USA East Sand Island
Yemen Aden
Yemen Bahr Ibn Abbas - Ra's Isa

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Hydroprogne caspia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2019.