LC
Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
L. michahellis and L. armenicus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as L. michahellis following a review by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group. Prior to that, L. armenicus had been split and L. cachinnans (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) had been lumped with L. michahellis as L. cachinnans following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2010 Least Concern
2008 Not Recognised
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,820,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 20,400,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 0
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.4 - - -

Population justification: Global population size is unknown owing to recent taxonomic splits. The European population is estimated at 54,100-87,500 pairs, which equates to 108,000-175,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Nepal V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Glynanyi island
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Lake Tataru
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Poland Nysa reservoir
Hungary Öreg Lake of Tata
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Maly Zhemchuzhny island
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Cheremshanski Bay of Kuybyshev Reservoir
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Obytichna peninsula
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Utlyuk lyman
Ukraine Sasyk lake
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Kuyal'nyts'kyj lyman
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Solonyj Lyman lake
Romania Black Sea
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Croatia Jelas Field
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bushire Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Pozam - Maytab coast
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Israel Zevulun valley
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Israel Carmel coast
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Kuwait Sulaibikhat Bay
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve
Oman Khawr Shinas and Khawr Liwa
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Duqm
Oman Khawr Ghawi
Oman Salalah Bird Sanctuary
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Russia (European) Peat pits in Volodarski and Balakhninski districts
Russia (European) Lake Ayke
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Pelikani islands
Russia (European) Shabel'skaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Leninsk forest area
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Malyi Bugodak
Russia (Central Asian) Katai lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kaban'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Tirikul' and Kadkul' lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Tenis
Russia (Central Asian) Saltaim-Tenis lake
Russia (Central Asian) Yudinsky stretch
Russia (Central Asian) Elbanskye islands (Obsky reservoir)
Russia (Central Asian) Butash and Gor'koye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity)
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtuguz Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Intenis Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Pesochnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Yakush Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kartabyz and Lebedinoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Myrkaj Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tishki Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Gorbunnoe and Solenoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koe, Krivoe and Zhuravlinoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Alekaj Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Achlikul' Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Terenkul' and Gagar'e Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Otnoga Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Greater Shantarkai Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Sugoyak Lake
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Chairya
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between N.Novgorod and Pamyat' Parizhskoi Kommuny village
Russia (European) Surskoi spur of Cheboksarskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Marshes near villages Frolishchi and Chistoye
Russia (European) Marshes near Pavlovskoye Zaoch'ye and adjoining floodplain of Oka river
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Kamyshnoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Zingeika lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tulak lake
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Kazakhstan Sarshyganak Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Turkmenistan Ogurjaly island
Russia (European) Sulakskaya bay
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Romania Suhaia
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
United Arab Emirates Alqurm Wa Lehfeiyah (Khor Kalba)
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Ushkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Bosphorus

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus cachinnans. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/05/2020.