Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres


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Anderson, M. D.; Maritz, A. W. A.; Oosthuysen, E. 1999. Raptors drowning in farm reservoirs in South Africa. Ostrich 70(2): 139-144.

Anon. 2006. Namibia's Cape Griffon Vultures receive boost. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 13: 16.

Anon. 2008. Traditional medicine demand threatens vultures in southern Africa. Vulture News: 77-79.

Anon. 2011. Cape Vulture Breeding and Reintroduction. Website. Available at: (Accessed: 20/03/2012).

Anon. 2014. Controversial wind farm in Lesotho gets the go-ahead. BirdLife International Available at:

Bamford, A. J.; Diekmann, M.; Monadjem, A.; Mendelsohn, J. 2007. Ranging behaviour of Cape Vultures Gyps coprotheres from an endangered population in Namibia. Bird Conservation International 17(4): 331-339.

Bamford, A. J.; Monadjem, A.; Hardy, I. C. W. 2009. An effect of vegetation structure on carcass exploitation by vultures in an African savanna. Ostrich 80(3): 135-137.

Barnes, K. N. 2000. The Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Beilis, N.; Esterhuizen, J. 2005. The potential impact on Cape Griffon Gyps coprotheres populations due to the trade in traditional medicine in Maseru, Lesotho. Vulture News: 15-19.

Benson, C., and McClure C.J.W. 2020. The decline and rise of the Kransberg Cape Vulture colony over 35 years has implications for composite population indices and survey frequency. Ibis 162: 863-872.

Benson, P. C. 2000. Causes of Cape Vulture mortality at the Kransberg colony: a 17 year update. In: Chancellor, R.D.; Meyburg, B.-U. (ed.), Raptors at risk, pp. 77-86. Hancock House, Surrey, Canada.

Benson, P.C. 2015. A survey of Cape Vulture breeding colonies in South Africa’s northern provinces (Transvaal Region) – an update 2013. Ornithological Observations 6: 31-36.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

BirdLife International. 2008. Drugs firms told to do more to prevent vulture extinctions. Available at: #

Borello, W. D.; Borello, R. M. 2002. The breeding status and colony dynamics of Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) in Botswana. Bird Conservation International 12: 79-97.

Boshoff, A. F.; Anderson, M.D. 2006. Towards a conservation plan for the Cape Griffon Gyps coprotheres: identifying priorities for research and conservation action.

Boshoff, A.; Anderson, M. D. 2007. Towards a conservation plan for the Cape Griffon Gyps coprotheres: identifying priorities for research and conservation. Vulture News: 56-59.

Boshoff, A.; Piper, S.; Michael, M. 2009. On the distribution and breeding status of the Cape Griffon Gyps coprotheres in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Ostrich 80(2): 85-92.

Boshoff, A.F., Minnie, J.C., Tambling, C.J. and Michael, M.D. 2011. The impact of power line-related mortality on the Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres in a part of its range, with an emphasis on electrocution. Bird Conservation International 21(311-327).

Botha, A. 2006. A new vulture colour-marking method for southern Africa. Endangered Wildlife: 12-14.

Botha, A. and Krüger, S. 2012. New Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres roosts in the Free State Province, South Africa. Vulture News 62: 42-43.

Botha, A.J., Ogada, D.L. and Virani, M.Z. 2012. Proceedings of the Pan-African Vulture Summit. Endangered Wildlife Trust, Modderfontein, South Africa and The Peregrine Fund, Boise, ID.

Convention on Migratory Species. 2017. Multi-species action plan to conserve African-Eurasian vultures (vultures MSAP).

Diekmann, M.; Strachan, A. 2006. Saving Namibia's most endangered bird. WAZA Magazine: 16-19.

Donnay, T. J. 1990. Status, nesting and nest site selection of Cape Vultures in Lesotho. Vulture News 24: 11-24.

Goikantswemang, T., Reading, R.P., Maude, G., Selebatso, M., Hancock, P., Borello, W.D., Borello, R.M. and Perkins, J.S. 2021. Breeding Success of Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) At Colonies In the Tswapong Hills, Botswana. J. Raptor Res 55(3): 3356.

Hancock, P. 2008. Cape Vulture. In: Hancock, P. (ed.), The status of globally and nationally threatened birds in Botswana, 2008., pp. 9-10. BirdLife Botswana.

Hirschauer, M. 2015. Captive bred vultures fly free. Available at: (Accessed: 25/09/2015).

Hirschauer, M. 2015. Captive bred vultures fly free. Available at: (Accessed: 25/09/2015).

Hirschauer, M.T., Wolter, K., Howard, A., Rolek, B.W., and McClure, C. J. W. 2020. Population growth rates in northern Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres colonies between 2010 and 2019. Bird Conservation International: 1-10.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Jenkins, A. 2010. Cape Vulture. Africa - Birds & Birding 15(2): 62-63.

Kleinhans and Willows-Munro. 2019. Low genetic diversity and shallow population structure in the endangered vulture, Gyps coprotheres. Nature 9(5536).

Martens, F.R., Pfeiffer, M.B., Downs, C.T., and Venter, J.A. 2018. Post-fledgling movement and spatial ecology of the endangered Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres). Journal of Ornithology.

McKean, S.; Botha, A. 2007. Traditional medicine demand threatens vultures in Southern Africa.

McKean, S.; Mander, M.; Diederichs, N.; Ntuli, L.; Mavundla, K.; Williams, V.; Wakelin, J. 2013. The impact of traditional use on vultures in South Africa. Vulture News 65: 15-36.

Monadjem, A.; Wolter, K.; Neser, W.; Kane, A. 2014. Effect of rehabilitation on survival rates of endangered Cape Vultures. Anim. Conserv. 17: 52-60.

Mundy, P. J.; Benson, P. C.; Allan, D. G. 1997. Cape Vulture Kransaalvoël Gyps coprotheres. In: Harrison, J.A.; Allan, D.G.; Underhill, L.G.; Herremans, M.; Tree, A.J.; Parker, V.; Brown, C.J. (ed.), The atlas of southern African birds. Vol. 1: Non-passerines, pp. 158-159. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Mundy, P.; Butchart, D.; Ledger, J.; Piper, S. 1992. The vultures of Africa. Academic Press, London.

Oatley, T. B.; Oschadleus, H. D.; Navarro, R. A.; Underhill, L. G. 1998. Review of ring recoveries of birds of prey in southern Africa: 1948-1998.

Ogada, D.; Shaw, P.; Beyers, R.L.; Buij, R.; Murn, C.; Thiollay, J.M.; Beale, C.M.; Holdo, R.M.; Pomeroy, D.; Baker, N.; Krüger, S.C.; Botha, A.; Virani, M.Z.; Monadjem, A.; Sinclair, A.R.E. 2016. Another continental vulture crisis: Africa’s vultures collapsing toward extinction. Conservation Letters 9: 89-97.

Parker, V. 1994. Swaziland bird atlas 1985--1991. Webster's, Mbabane.

Parker, V. 1999. The atlas of the birds of Sul do Save, southern Mozambique. Avian Demography Unit and Endangered Wildlife Trust., Cape Town and Johannesburg.

Pfeiffer, M. B.; Venter, J. A.; Downs, C. T. 2015. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Koedoe 57(1): 1240.

Pfeiffer, M.B., Venter, J.A., Downs, C.T. 2016. Cliff characteristics, neighbour requirements and breeding success of the colonial Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres. Ibis 159: 26-37.

Piper, S. E.; Boshoff, A. F.; Scott, H. A. 1999. Modelling survival rates in the Cape Griffon Gyps coprotheres with emphasis on the effects of supplementary feeding. Bird Study 46: 230-238.

Rushworth, I. and Krüger, S. 2014. Wind farms threaten southern Africa’s cliff-nesting vultures. Ostrich 85(1): 13-23.

Schabo, D. G.; Heuner, S.; Neethling, M. V.; Rösner, S.; Uys, R.; Farwig, N. 2016. Long-term data indicates that supplementary food enhances the number of breeding pairs in a Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres colony. Bird Conservation International early access: DOI:

Schultz, P. 2007. Does bush encroachment impact foraging success of the critically endangered Namibian population of the Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres? Vulture News: 109.

Simmons, R. E.; Boix-Hinzen, C.; Barnes, K. N.; Jarvis, A. M.; Robertson, A. 1998. Important Bird Areas of Namibia. In: Barnes, K.N. (ed.), The Important Bird Areas of southern Africa, pp. 295-332. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Simmons, R. E.; Brown, C. J. 2015. Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres. In: Simmons, R. E.; Brown, C. J.; Kemper, J. (ed.), Birds to watch in Namibia: red, rare and endemic species, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Namibia Nature Foundation.

Simmons, R. E.; Jenkins, A. R. 2007. Is climate change influencing the decline of Cape and Bearded Vultures in southern Africa? Vulture News: 41-51.

Theron, N. 2013. Cape vultures: new IBA in Pondoland. African Birdlife 1: 62.

Vernon, C. 1999. The Cape Vulture at Colleywobbles: 1977--1997. Ostrich 70: 200-202.

Wolter, K. 2011. Cape Vulture captive breeding programme. Bokmakerie 232: 25-26.

Wolter, K., Neser, W. and Hirschauer, M. 2014. Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres) Captive-Breeding Protocols. VulPro.

Wolter, K., Nester, W., Hirschauer, M.T., and Camina, A. 2016. Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres breeding status in southern Africa: monitoring results from 2010-2014. Ostrich 87(2): 119-123.

Wolter, K.; Naidoo, V.; Whittington-Jones, C.; Bartels, P. 2007. Does the presence of vulture restaurants influence the movement of Cape Vultures (Gyps coprotheres) in the Magaliesberg? SAWMA , Didima, South Africa.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Vulture Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Gyps coprotheres. Downloaded from on 28/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/06/2022.