LC
Cape Verde Storm-petrel Hydrobates jabejabe



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Hydrobates castro (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) has been split into H. castro and H. jabejabe (Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International 2018). Wallace et al. (2017) provides molecular support for the acceptance of the population of Band-rumped Storm-petrel Hydrobates castro jabejabe on the Cape Verdes as a full species, as indicated by at least two previous studies (cited in del Hoyo and Collar [2014]: 372). A study by Bolton (2007) revealed that the Cape Verde birds differ rather strongly in voice:

'The hot-season Azores calls generally have a simple one- or two-syllable, rising breath note, stressed on the last syllable, that contrasts markedly with the more protracted, four-syllable (rarely five-syllable) breath note of the sympatric cool-season population, stressed on the penultimate syllable. Cape Verde Burrow Calls are typified by extremely infrequent interruptions of the purr phrase, which on occasion may continue for several minutes without a breath note.'

Examination of the sonagrams in Bolton (2007) strongly suggests that Tobias scores on vocal differences would be very high. This and the very consistent molecular evidence points to the recognition of the Cape Verde population as a full species. Bocage (1875) tentatively described the taxon jabe-jabe from Raso, Cape Verdes, on the basis of a single specimen which he distinguished from H. leucorhous (rather than from H. castro) by its stronger and glossier (vs grey-washed matt sooty) black head and back, lack of brown shafts in the white uppertail-coverts, less forked tail, slightly stronger bill, slightly shorter toes and legs. This is unhelpful in establishing whether there are any characters that distinguish jabejabe from castro, but photographs on the internet suggest it has a marginally wider white rump and more contrasting upperwing-coverts.

Taxonomic source(s)
Bocage, J. V. B. 1875. Observações ácerca do ‘Corvo’ do Archipelago de Cabo-Verde. J. Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes 5 : 113-120.
Bolton, M. 2007. Playback experiments indicate absence of vocal recognition among temporally and geographically separated populations of Madeira Storm-petrels Oceanodroma castro. Ibis 149(2): 255-263.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2018. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 3. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v3_Nov18.zip.
Wallace, S. J., Morris-Pocock, J. A., González-Solís, J., Quillfeldt, P. & Friesen, V. L. 2017. A phylogenetic test of sympatric speciation in the Hydrobatinae (Aves: Procellariiformes). Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 107: 39-47.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 53,800,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 15500-67500 poor estimated 2018
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 19.1 - - -

Population justification: Population estimates from several islands in its breeding range suggests that the overall population size is likely greater than 10,000 mature individuals overall (M. Lecoq in litt. 2018) (c.15,500-67,500), with further areas still to be quantified (M. Lecoq in litt. 2018).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to predation by invasive species, potential exploitation by humans and habitat degradation.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Cape Verde N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cape Verde Ilhéus do Rombo
Cape Verde Cruzinha Natural Park
Cape Verde Rabo de Junco Islet Natural Reserve Reserva
Cape Verde Curral Velho Islet Integral Natural Reserve
Cape Verde Coastal cliffs between Porto Mosquito and Baia do Inferno
Cape Verde Branco Islet Integral Natural Reserve
Cape Verde Raso Islet Integral Natural Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mus musculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Excess energy - Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Hydrobates jabejabe. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/02/2023.