Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis


Barnes, K.N. 2000. The Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Birdlife International. 2000. Threatened Birds of the World. Barcelona. Lynx Edicions.

Cook, T. R., Hamann, M., Pichegru, L., Bonadonna, F., Grémillet, D., & Ryan, P. G. 2012. GPS and time-depth loggers reveal underwater foraging plasticity in a flying diver, the Cape Cormorant. Marine Biology 159(2): 373-387.

Cook, T.R. 2015. Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis. In: Taylor MR, Wanless RM, Peacock F (eds) The Eskom Red Data Book of Birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg,: 36-38.

Cooper, J. 1985. Foraging behaviour of nonbreeding imperial cormorants at the Prince Edward Islands. Ostrich 56: 96-100.

Cooper, J., Brooke, R.K., Shelton, P.A., Crawford, R.J.M. 1982. Distribution, population size and conservation of the Cape cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis. Fisheries Bulletin South Africa 16: 121–143.

Crawford RJM, Makhado AB, Whittington PA, Randall RM, Oosthuizen WH, Waller LJ. 2015. A changing distribution of seabirds in South Africa – the possible impact of climate and its consequences. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 3( 10): 1–10, doi: 10.3389/fevo.2015.000010.

Crawford, R. J. M. 2013. Long-term change in the population sizes and conservation status of South Africa's seabirds. Ostrich DOI:10.2989/00306525.2013.819661: v-ix.

Crawford, R. J. M., Allwright, D. M., Heyl, C. W. 1992a. High mortality of Cape Cormorants (Phalacrocorax capensis) off western South Africa in 1991 caused by Pasteurella multocida. Colonial Waterbirds 15(2): 236–238.

Crawford, R. J. M., Underhill, L. G., Raubenheimer, C. M., Dyer, B. M. & Martin, J. 1992b. Top predators in the Benguela ecosystem – implications of their trophic position. South African Journal of Marine Science 12: 675–687.

Crawford, R. J. M.; Dyer, B. M.; Kemper, J.; Simmons, R. E.; Upfold, L. 2007. Trends in numbers of Cape Cormorants (Phalacrocorax capensis) over a 50-year period, 1956–57 to 2006–07. Emu 107(4): 253–261.

Crawford, R.J.M. 2007. Food, fishing and seabirds in the Benguela upwelling system. Journal of Ornithology 148 (2): 253–260.

Crawford, R.J.M. and Dyer, B.M. 1995. Responses by four seabird species to a fluctuating availability of Cape anchovy (Engraulis capensis) off South Africa. Ibis 127: 329-339.

Crawford, R.J.M. and Shelton, P.A. 1978. Pelagic fish and seabird interrelationships off the coast of south west and south Africa. Biological Conservation 14: 85-109.

Crawford, R.J.M., Dyer, B.M., Upfold, L., Ward, V.L. 2001. Age at first breeding of Bank, Phalacrocorax neglectus, and Cape Cormorants, P. capensis. Ostrich 72: 145–148.

Crawford, R.J.M., Makhado, A.B., Waller, L.J., Whittington, P.A. 2014. Winners and losers – responses to recent environmental change by South African seabirds that compete with purse-seine fisheries for food. Ostrich 85: 111–117.

Crawford, R.J.M., Randall, R.M., Cook, T.R., Ryan, P.G., Dyer, B.M., Fox, R., Geldenhuys, D., Huisamen, J., McGeorge, C., Smith, M.K. and Upfold, L. 2016. Cape cormorants decrease, move east and adapt foraging strategies following eastward displacement of their main prey. African Journal of Marine Science 38(3): 373-383.

David, J.H.M., Cury, P., Crawford, R.J.M., Randall, R.M., Underhill, L.G. and Meyer, M.A. 2003. Assessing conservation priorities in the Benguela ecosystem, South Africa: analysing predation by seals on threatened seabirds. Biological Conservation 114: 289-292.

de Ponte Machado, M. 2007. Is predation on seabirds a new foraging behaviour for Great White Pelicans? History, foraging strategies and prey defensive responses. In: Kirkman SP (ed.) Final Report of the BCLME (Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem) Project on Top Predators as Biological Indicators of Ecosystem Change in the BCLME. Avian Demography Unit, Cape Town.

Dean, W.R.J., Dowsett, R.J., Sakko, A., Simmons, R.E. 2002. New records and amendments to the birds of Angola. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 122: 180–185.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Du Toit, M., Bartlett, P.A., Bester, M.N. and Roux, J.R. 2004. Seabird predation by individual seals at Ichaboe Island, Namibia. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34(1): 45-54.

Dyer, B.M. 2007. Report on top-predator survey of southern Angola including Ilha dos Tigres, 20–29 November 2005. In: Kirkman SP (ed.), Final report of the BCLME (Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem) Project on Top Predators as Biological Indicators of Ecosystem Change in the BCLME. Avian Demography Unit, Cape Town.: 303–306.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1993. Cormorants, darters, and pelicans of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Kemper J. 2015. Birds to watch in Namibia. Red, rare and endemic species. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, and Namibia Nature Foundation, Windhoek: 183–185.

Kemper, J. and Simmons, R. 2015. Cape cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis. Birds to watch in Namibia: red, rare and endemic species. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Windhoek, Namibia.

Makhado AB, Crawford RJM, Waller LJ, Underhill LG. 2013. An assessment of the impact of predation by Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus on seabirds at Dyer Island, South Africa. Ostrich 84: 191–198.

Marks, M.A., Brooke, R.K. and Gildenhys, A.M. 1997. Cape fur seal (Arctophalus pusillus pusillus) predation on Cape cormorants (Phalacrocorax capensis) and other birds at Dyer Island, South Africa. Marine Ornithology 25: 9-12.

Mwema, M.M., de Ponte Machado, M., Ryan, P.G. 2010. Breeding seabirds at Dassen Island, South Africa: chances of surviving great white pelican predation. Endangered Species Research 9: 125–131.

Nelson, J. B. 2005. Pelicans, cormorants and their relatives. Pelecanidae, Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Fregatidae, Phaethontidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Voorbergen, A., De Boer, W.F., Underhill, L.G. 2012. Natural and human-induced predation on Cape cormorants at Dyer Island. Bird Conservation International 22: 82–93.

Waller, L.J., Underhill, L.G. 2007. Management of avian cholera Pasturella multocida outbreaks on Dyer Island, South Africa, 2002–2005. African Journal of Marine Science 29: 105–111.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Cormorant Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax capensis. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/cape-cormorant-phalacrocorax-capensis on 02/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 02/03/2024.