LC
Canada Warbler Cardellina canadensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Cardellina canadensis (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Wilsonia following AERC TAC (2003); AOU (1998 & supplements); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); SACC (2005 & updates); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2010 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,840,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 5,080,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2003
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population has been estimated at 1,400,000 individuals.

Trend justification: Although data indicates a rapid annual decline of 3.8% between 1980 and 2007 (Sauer et al. 2008), the most recent data from the Breeding Birds Survey suggests a more moderate decline of 0.63% per annum between 1998 and 2009 (Sauer in litt. 2010). This equates to a decline of 6.3% over this period, hence a decline of 1-9% over the past 11 years (three generations) is estimated.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belize N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant
Brazil V Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
French Polynesia V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guatemala N Extant
Haiti V Extant
Honduras N Extant
Jamaica V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Peru N Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Cardellina canadensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/02/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/02/2019.