VU
Campbell Teal Anas nesiotis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable D2
2016 Endangered D
2013 Endangered D
2012 Endangered D
2011 Endangered D1
2010 Critically Endangered D1
2009 Critically Endangered D1
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,300 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10
Number of locations 2 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Stable good inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.13 - - -

Population justification: Based on opportunistic observations, the population size is suspected to be greater than 500 mature individuals and to possibly number 800-1,000 mature individuals (P. J. McClelland in litt. 2019). However, since the species is secretive and no comprehensive or systematic surveys have been carried out, there is a lot of uncertainty in the population size (P. J. McClelland in litt. 2020). The population comprises at least 200 mature individuals at Campbell Island, 100-200 mature individuals at Whenua Hou/Codfish Island (P. J. McClelland in litt. 2019) and a small population, suspected in 2013 to number fewer than 30 individuals (Williams 2013a), at Dent Island. Individuals occassionally swim the 3 km from Dent Island to Campbell Island.

Trend justification: In 1990, a survey of Dent estimated a population of 60-100 birds (Goudswaard 1991), although other estimates from around the same time estimated just 30 individuals (P. McClelland in litt. 2019). It is likely that no more than 25 breeding pairs were present in 1998 (Gummer and Williams 1999). In 1999-2000, 24 captive-bred birds were released on Whenua Hou/Codfish Island to create a temporary population (Gummer and Williams 1999, Gummer 2006b). The population on Whenua Hou expanded rapidly, with egg-laying occurring in the first year (Williams 2013b). From 2004-2006, 159 birds, including some from Whenua Hou and captive-bred individuals, were reintroduced to Campbell Island (Potter 2006, P. J. McClelland in litt. 2012). The majority of birds released in 2004 were believed to have survived their first year on Campbell Island, and successful breeding was confirmed in 2006 (Anon. 2006). A survey in December 2008 confirmed that the species had established on the island (P. J. McClelland in litt. 2008). This 2008 survey, along with opportunistic observations of breeding and dispersal activity (P. J. McClelland in litt. 2008, 2010, 2011), suggested that the population size in 2012 was between 100 and 200 mature individuals. Based on opportunistic observations, the population size is currently suspected to be greater than 500 mature individuals and to possibly number 800-1,000 mature individuals (P. J. McClelland in litt. 2019). Comprehensive surveys have not been undertaken so population estimates are uncertain, but the population increase is considered to have a high level of certainty, although it may now have stabilised as carrying capacity is reached on the range islands (P. J. McClelland in litt. 2020).



Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Campbell Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subantarctic suitable resident
Grassland Subantarctic major resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes major resident
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Altitude 0 - 200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus exulans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus norvegicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Anas chlorotis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Hybridisation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Anas nesiotis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022.