California Condor Gymnogyps californianus


Anon. 1998. California Condor restoration. In The Peregrine Fund. Annual Report 1998. Boise, USA:The Peregrine Fund.

Anon. 2001. Lead kills condors in the Grand Canyon National Park. Oryx 35: 108.

Bakker, V. J.; Smith, D. R.; Copeland, H.; Brandt, J.; Wolstenholme, R.; Burnett, J.; Kirkland, S.; Finkelstein, M. R. 2017. Effects of lead exposure, flock behavior, and management actions on the survival of California Condors ( Gymnogyps californianus). EcoHealth 14: S92-S105.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

Burnett, L.J.; Sorenson, K.J.; Brandt, J.; Sandhaus, E.A.; Ciani, D.; Clark, M.; David, C.; Theule, J.; Kasielke, S.; Risebrough, R.W. 2013. Eggshell thinning and depressed hatching success of California Condors reintroduced to Central California. The Condor 115(3): 477-491.

Cade, T. J. 2007. Exposure of California Condors to lead from spent ammunition. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(7): 2125-2133.

Cade, T. J.; Osborn, S. A.; Hunt, W. G.; Woods, C. P. 2004. Commentary on Released California Condors Gymnogyps californianus in Arizona. In: Chancellor, R. D.; Meyburg, B. U. (ed.), Worldwide raptors. Proceedings conference.

Clark, M.; Wallace, M. P.; David, C. 2007. Rearing California Condors for release using a modified puppet-rearing technique. California Condors in the 21st Century: 213-226.

Finkelstein, M. E.; Brandt, J.; Sandhaus, E.; Mee, A.; Schuppert, P.; Smith, D. R. 2015. Lead exposure risk from trash ingestion in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 51(4): 901-906.

Finkelstein, M. E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gqiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, A. P.; Clark, M. Wynne, J.; Grantham, J.; Smith, D. R. 2010. Feather lead concentrations and 207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Environmental Science and Technology 44(7): 2639-2647.

Finkelstein, M.E., Doak, D.F., George, D., Burnett, J., Brandt, J., Church, M., Grantham, J., and Smith, D.R. 2012. Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1203141109.

Hunt, W. G.; Parish, C.N.; Farry, S.C.; Lord, T. G.; Sieg, R. 2007. Movements of introduced California Condors in Arizona in relation to lead exposure. In: Mee, A; Hall, LS; Grantham, J (ed.), California Condors in the 21st century, pp. 79-96. American Ornithologists Union, McLean, VA, U.S.A.

Hunting with Non-Lead. 2020. Available at: (Accessed: 28th August 2020).

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Kelly, T.R., Grantham, J., George, D., Welch, A., Brandt, J., Burnett, L.J., Sorenson, K.J., Johnson, M., Battistone, C. and Johnson, C.K. 2014. Spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors for lead exposure in endangered California Condors during 15 years of reintroduction. Conservation Biology 28(6): 1721-1730.

Kurle, C. M.; Bakker, V. J.; Copeland, H.; Burnett, J.; Scherbinski, J. J.; Brandt, J.; Finkelstein, M. E. 2016. Terrestrial Scavenging of Marine Mammals: Cross-Ecosystem Contaminant Transfer and Potential Risks to Endangered California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(17): 9114-9123.

Mee, A.; Rideout, B. A.; Hamber, J. A.; Todd, J. N.; Austin, G.; Clark, M; Wallace, M. P. 2007. Junk ingestion and nestling mortality in a reintroduced population of California Condors Gymnogyps californianus. Bird Conservation International 17(2): 1-13.

Meretsky, V. J.; Snyder, N. F. R.; Beissinger, S. R.; Clendenen, D. A.; Wiley, J. W. 2000. Demography of the California Condor: implications for reestablishment. Conservation Biology 14: 957-967.

North American Non-Lead Partnership. 2020. Available at: (Accessed: 28th August 2020).

Parish, C.N.; Heinrich, W. R.; Hunt, W. G. 2007. Lead exposure, diagnosis, and treatment in California Condors released in Arizona. In: Mee, A; Hall, LS; Grantham, J (ed.), California Condors in the 21st century, pp. 97-108. American Ornithologists Union, McLean, VA, U.S.A.

Ralls, K.; Ballou, J.D. 2004. Genetic status and management of California Condors. Condor 106: 215-228.

Rideout, B. A.; Stalis, I.; Papendick, R.; Pessier, A.; Puschner, B.; Finkeltein, M. E.; Smith, D. R.; Johnson, M.; Mace, M.; Stroud, R.; Brandt, J.; Burnett, J.; Parish, C.; Petterson, J.; Witte, C.; Stringfield, C.; Orr, K.; Zuba, J.; Wallace, M.; Grantham, J. 2012. Patterns of mortality in free-ranging California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48: 95-112.

Rivers, J. W.; Johnson, J. M.; Haig, S. M.; Schwarz, C. J.; Burnett, L. J.; Brandt, J.; George, D.; Grantham, J. 2014. An analysis of monthly home range size in the critically endangered California Condor Gymnogyps californianus. Bird Conservation International 24(4): 492-504.

Toops, C. 2009. New dawn in Condor country. Bird Watcher's Digest 32(1): 38-45.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. California Condor recovery plan.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2002. California Condors return to Mexico.

U.S. FIsh and Wildlife Service. 2019. California Condor Recovery Program Annual Population Status.

Vulture Specialist Group. 2017. Vulture updates No. 7 - October 2017. Vulture Specialist Group - IUCN Species Survival Commission.

Wallace, M. P.; Clark, M.; Vargas, J.; Porras, M. C. 2007. Release of puppetreared California Condors in Baja California: Evaluation of a modified rearing technique. California Condors in the 21st Century: 227-242.

Walters, J. R.; Derrickson, S. R.; Fry, D. M.; Haig, S. M.; Marzluff, J. M.; Wunderle, J. M., Jr. 2010. Status of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and efforts to achieve its recovery. The Auk 127(4): 969-1001.

Wilbur, S. 1978. The California Condor, 1966-76: a look at its past and future. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

Wilbur, S. R.; Kiff, L. F. 1980. The California Condor in Baja California, Mexico. American Birds 34: 856-859.

Woods, C. P.; Heinrich, W. R.; Farry, S.C.; Parish, C.N.; Osborn, S. A.H.; Cade, T.J. 2007. Survival and reproduction of California Condors released in Arizona. In: Mee, A; Hall, LS; Grantham, J (ed.), California Condors in the 21st century, pp. 57-78. American Ornithologists' Union, McLean, VA, U.S.A.

Further resources

Audubon California Major Programmes

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

The Peregrine Fund - California Condor Restoration - Conservation Projects

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Recovery Plan

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Gymnogyps californianus. Downloaded from on 01/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/12/2022.