California Condor Gymnogyps californianus


Anon. 1998. California Condor restoration. In The Peregrine Fund. Annual Report 1998. Boise, USA:The Peregrine Fund.

Anon. 2001. Lead kills condors in the Grand Canyon National Park. Oryx 35: 108.

Anon. 2009. Second California Condor shot in three weeks - Wildlife Extra News. Available at: #

Bakker, V. J.; Smith, D. R.; Copeland, H.; Brandt, J.; Wolstenholme, R.; Burnett, J.; Kirkland, S.; Finkelstein, M. R. 2017. Effects of lead exposure, flock behavior, and management actions on the survival of California Condors ( Gymnogyps californianus). EcoHealth 14: S92-S105.

Burnett, L.J.; Sorenson, K.J.; Brandt, J.; Sandhaus, E.A.; Ciani, D.; Clark, M.; David, C.; Theule, J.; Kasielke, S.; Risebrough, R.W. 2013. Eggshell thinning and depressed hatching success of California Condors reintroduced to Central California. The Condor 115(3): 477-491.

Cade, T. J. 2007. Exposure of California Condors to lead from spent ammunition. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(7): 2125-2133.

California Condor Recovery Program. 2012. California Condor Gymnogyps califormianus Recovery Program Population Size and Distribution November 30, 2012.

Carpentier, G. 2009. Biology and status [Californian Condor]. Bird Watcher's Digest 32(1): 44-45.

Chu, M.; Stone, W.; McGowan, K. J.; Dhondt, A. A.; Hochachka, W. M.; Therrien, J. E. 2003. West Nile file. Birdscope 17: 10-11.

Finkelstein, M.E., Doak, D.F., George, D., Burnett, J., Brandt, J., Church, M., Grantham, J., and Smith, D.R. 2012. Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1203141109.

Graham, C. 2006. Californian Condors eat cold lead. World Birdwatch 28: 22-23.

Hunt, W. G.; Parish, C.N.; Farry, S.C.; Lord, T. G.; Sieg, R. 2007. Movements of introduced California Condors in Arizona in relation to lead exposure. In: Mee, A; Hall, LS; Grantham, J (ed.), California Condors in the 21st century, pp. 79-96. American Ornithologists Union, McLean, VA, U.S.A.

Kelly, T.R., Grantham, J., George, D., Welch, A., Brandt, J., Burnett, L.J., Sorenson, K.J., Johnson, M., Battistone, C. and Johnson, C.K. 2014. Spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors for lead exposure in endangered California Condors during 15 years of reintroduction. Conservation Biology 28(6): 1721-1730.

Kurle, C. M.; Bakker, V. J.; Copeland, H.; Burnett, J.; Scherbinski, J. J.; Brandt, J.; Finkelstein, M. E. 2016. Terrestrial Scavenging of Marine Mammals: Cross-Ecosystem Contaminant Transfer and Potential Risks to Endangered California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(17): 9114-9123.

Mee, A.; Rideout, B. A.; Hamber, J. A.; Todd, J. N.; Austin, G.; Clark, M; Wallace, M. P. 2007. Junk ingestion and nestling mortality in a reintroduced population of California Condors Gymnogyps californianus. Bird Conservation International 17(2): 1-13.

Meretsky, V. J.; Snyder, N. F. R.; Beissinger, S. R.; Clendenen, D. A.; Wiley, J. W. 2000. Demography of the California Condor: implications for reestablishment. Conservation Biology 14: 957-967.

Moir, J. 2009. A rare chance to view nesting condors. Winging it 21(4): 19.

Parish, C.N.; Heinrich, W. R.; Hunt, W. G. 2007. Lead exposure, diagnosis, and treatment in California Condors released in Arizona. In: Mee, A; Hall, LS; Grantham, J (ed.), California Condors in the 21st century, pp. 97-108. American Ornithologists Union, McLean, VA, U.S.A.

Ralls, K.; Ballou, J.D. 2004. Genetic status and management of California Condors. Condor 106: 215-228.

Rivers, J. W.; Johnson, J. M.; Haig, S. M.; Schwarz, C. J.; Burnett, L. J.; Brandt, J.; George, D.; Grantham, J. 2014. An analysis of monthly home range size in the critically endangered California Condor Gymnogyps californianus. Bird Conservation International 24(4): 492-504.

Silber, E. 2016. Califonia Condors reacha happy new milestone. Available at:

Toops, C. 2009. New dawn in Condor country. Bird Watcher's Digest 32(1): 38-45.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. California Condor recovery plan.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2002. California Condors return to Mexico.

Vulture Specialist Group. 2017. Vulture updates No. 7 - October 2017. Vulture Specialist Group - IUCN Species Survival Commission.

Wallace, M. 2004. California condor (Gymnogyps californianus).

Wallace, M. 2005. Re-introduction of the California Condor to Baja California, Mexico. Re-introduction News 24: 27-28.

West, C.J.; Wolfe, J.D.; Wiegardt, A.; Williams-Claussen, T. 2017. Feasibility of California Condor recovery in northern California, USA: Contaminants in surrogate Turkey Vultures and Common Ravens. The Condor Ornithological Applications 119: 720-731.

Wilbur, S. 1978. The California Condor, 1966-76: a look at its past and future. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

Wilbur, S. R.; Kiff, L. F. 1980. The California Condor in Baja California, Mexico. American Birds 34: 856-859.

Woods, C. P.; Heinrich, W. R.; Farry, S.C.; Parish, C.N.; Osborn, S. A.H.; Cade, T.J. 2007. Survival and reproduction of California Condors released in Arizona. In: Mee, A; Hall, LS; Grantham, J (ed.), California Condors in the 21st century, pp. 57-78. American Ornithologists' Union, McLean, VA, U.S.A.

Further resources

Audubon California Major Programmes

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

The Peregrine Fund - California Condor Restoration - Conservation Projects

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Recovery Plan

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Gymnogyps californianus. Downloaded from on 01/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/06/2020.