CR
California Condor Gymnogyps californianus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(i);D C2a(i);D C2a(i);D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Critically Endangered C2a(i);D
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(i);D
2015 Critically Endangered C2a(i);D
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(i);D
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(i);D
2010 Critically Endangered D1
2009 Critically Endangered D1
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 405,000 medium
Number of locations 2-5 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 44 good observed 2012
Population trend Increasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 20.3 - - -

Population justification: There are currently 104 adults in the wild that are old enough to breed, and 44 have produced viable offspring (J. Grantham in litt. 2010). As mature individuals as defined by IUCN only includes individuals in the wild that are currently capable of reproduction, and re-introduced individuals must have produced viable offspring before they are counted as mature individuals, the current global population sensu IUCN is 44 mature individuals. The wild population currently numbers 231 individuals in total (California Condor Recovery Program 2012).

Trend justification: Wilbur (1978) states that the vulture population during the period 1920-1950 numbered more than 70 birds. Today, owing to an intensive captive-breeding an reintroduction programme, there are 106 mature wild birds, 44 of which have successfully bred (J. Grantham in litt. 2010), hence the population is increasing. However, this should be treated with caution as there are indications that without treatment for lead poisoning, mortality rates in the wild may exceed sustainable levels (Finkelstein et al. 2012). Despite the threat of lead poisoning though, 2015 saw the first year where the number of successful fledgings was greater than the number of individuals that died in the wild (Silber 2016).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Mexico R Extant Yes
USA R Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mexico Sierra de San Pedro Mártir
USA Big Sur
USA Grand Canyon National Park- Raptor Migration Points
USA King City Grasslands (formerly Salinas River - Middle)
USA Marble Canyon and Vermilion Cliffs
USA San Emigdio Mountains
USA Santa Lucia Peaks
USA Tehachapi Mountains
USA Zion National Park UT20

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude 450 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 0 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - West Nile Virus (WNV) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Gymnogyps californianus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/04/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/04/2018.