Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra


Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 61.59999847 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 16,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 45000000-99999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 10,300,000-21,900,000 pairs, which equates to 20,500,000-43,800,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.45% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 45,500,000-97,300,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline following a number of recorded regional declines in recent decades (del Hoyo et al. 2004). In Europe, trends between 1996 and 2013 have been declining moderately (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Harmanliyska Reka
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Croatia Ravni Kotari
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Mesaoria Plain
Cyprus Mia Milia Sewage Treatment Plant
France Crau
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Plateau de Valensole
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Italy Altopiano di Campeda
Italy Campo d'Ozieri
Italy Central Campidano
Italy Gravine
Italy Murge
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Portugal Castro Marim
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Cuba
Portugal Évora plains
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Vila Fernando
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Denis Tepe
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain La Serena
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Melanocorypha calandra. Downloaded from on 22/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/11/2019.