LC
Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 62 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 16,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 45000000-99999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 10,300,000-21,900,000 pairs, which equates to 20,500,000-43,800,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.45% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 45,500,000-97,300,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline following a number of recorded regional declines in recent decades (del Hoyo et al. 2004). In Europe, trends between 1996 and 2013 have been declining moderately (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Évora plains
Portugal Alter do Chão
Portugal Monforte plains
Portugal Vila Fernando
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Castro Marim
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Campo Maior
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Anthofyto area
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Thessaly plain
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués
Spain Carrión-Frómista
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Alcañiz salt lakes
Spain La Serena
Spain Alcarria de Alcalá steppes
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Oril' river valley
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Crau
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Plateau de Valensole
Italy Murge
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Pollino
Italy Altopiano di Campeda
Italy Central Campidano
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Coast from Palo to Santa Marinella
Italy Gargano promontory
Italy Cape Otranto and Cape Santa Maria di Leuca coast
Italy Castelluzzo
Georgia Iori Region
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Rupite
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Cuba
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Orsoya Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Bulgaria Harmanliyska Reka
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Syria Tual al-'Abba
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Italy Gravine
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Campo d'Ozieri
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Denis Tepe
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Cyprus Mesaoria Plain
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain
Cyprus Mia Milia Sewage Treatment Plant
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Croatia Ravni Kotari
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Serbia Presevo valley - Rujen

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Melanocorypha calandra. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/06/2020.