Bushy-crested Hornbill Anorrhinus galeritus


Justification of Red List Category
This species occurs in primary and tall secondary rainforest within a region experiencing high rates of deforestation. Although generally tolerant of secondary habitats, high hunting pressure is likely exacerbating the population decline caused by habitat loss. The species is therefore suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population reduction. Therefore, it is listed as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified. The species is reported to be widespread, but occurring at low densities (del Hoyo et al. 2001). In prime habitat, it can be locally common (Poonswad et al. 2013).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction (del Hoyo et al. 2001). An analysis of deforestation between 2000 and 2012 estimated forest loss within the species's range at 26.9% over three generations (29 years) (Tracewski et al. 2016). While the species's apparent tolerance of some habitat degradation might buffer the detrimental effects of deforestation to a certain degree, it is also threatened by hunting. Thus, the rate of decline is placed in the band 20-29% over three generations. Assuming the recent rate of decline remains constant, the species is projected to decline by 20-29% over the next three generations.

Distribution and population

The species occurs in the Sunda region. It ranges from the extreme south of Myanmar and southern Thailand through Peninsular Malaysia to Borneo, Sumatra and Natuna (Indonesia) and Brunei.


The species occurs in evergreen primary rainforest and mature secondary forest, mainly at elevations around 750 m, but occasionally up to 1,800 m. It prefers dense foothill forests along rivers and streams, but is also resident in selectively logged forests and along edges of clearings (Kemp et al. 2018). It main food sources are fruits, but also insects, lizards and frogs (Kemp et al. 2018). It lives in groups of up to 20 individuals (Poonswad et al. 2013). It breeds cooperatively, with the whole group helping at the nest, and throughout the year, mainly during periods with high food abundance (Kemp et al. 2018).


Forest destruction in the Sunda region has been extensive as a result of commercial and illegal logging, conversion to agriculture (particularly plantations) and increasing human population pressure. Even though the species can tolerate a moderate level of habitat degradation and selective logging, it is extirpated in intensively logged areas (Kemp et al. 2018). Its preferred lowland forest habitat is particularly impacted by deforestation, even within protected areas (Kemp et al. 2018). An analysis of forest loss from 2000 to 2012 estimated deforestation within the species's range at 26.9% over three generations (Tracewski et al. 2016). The species may also be taken as 'bycatch' by hunters targeting Helmeted Hornbill Rhinoplax vigil (R. Wirth in litt. 2017).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Occurs in several protected areas in Sumatra (Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Way Kambas National Park and Kerinci-Seblat National Park) and Thailand (Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary and Budo Sungai Padi National Park).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys across the species's range to determine the magnitude of declines and rates of range contraction. Campaign for the protection of remaining tracts of forest throughout the species's range. Restrict hunting.


c.70 cm. Medium-sized hornbill with dark brown plumage, grey-brown tail with broad black tip; bare bluish skin around the eyes and on the throat; male has a black bill with small black casque, while the female's bill is mostly yellow. Voice Groups audible over a large distance, high-pitched chorus of rising and gobbling calls.


Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Westrip, J., Butchart, S., Hermes, C.

Wirth, R.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Anorrhinus galeritus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2020.