Bushy-crested Hornbill Anorrhinus galeritus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2018 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,450,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown poor 0
Population trend decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.9 - - -

Population justification: The species is reported to be widespread, but occurring at low densities (del Hoyo et al. 2001). In Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, densities were estimated to be c. 3.05 birds/km2 (Anggraini et al. 2000). In East Malaysia, in the Crocker Range Park and Tawau Hills Park, the density of the species was observed to be between 1.6 individuals/km2 and 26.39 individuals/km2 respectively (Lakim and Biun 2005). In Peninsular Malaysia, inside Sungai Tekam Forestry Concession (Pahang state), density was observed to be 0.4 groups/km2 in a primary forest and 1.0, 0.4, 0.3, 0.5 groups/km2 in 0-6 month, 1-2, 3-4, and 5-6-year-old logged forest respectively (Johns 1987). In Kuala Lompat (Krau Wildlife Reserve), density was observed as 0.4 individuals/km2 (Medway and Wells 1971). Due to the temporal and spatial variation of population density estimates therefore (Anngraini et al. 2000), the population size of this species has not been formally quantified. In prime habitat, it can be considered locally common (Poonswad et al. 2013).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction (del Hoyo et al. 2001). An analysis of deforestation between 2000 and 2012 estimated forest loss within the species's range at 19.7%, rounded to 20% forest loss over three generations (21 years) (Tracewski et al. 2016). While the species's apparent tolerance of some habitat degradation might buffer the detrimental effects of deforestation to a certain degree, the scale of logging and deforestation is likely to pose an exacerbated affect in the future. Thus, the rate of decline is tentatively placed in the band 20-29% over three generations. Assuming the recent rate of decline remains constant, the species is also projected to decline by 20-29% over the next three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brunei extant native yes
Indonesia extant native yes
Malaysia extant native yes
Myanmar extant native yes
Thailand extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Malaysia Belum-Temenggor
Malaysia Bintang Range
Malaysia Central Titiwangsa Range
Malaysia Danum Valley Conservation Area
Malaysia Danum-Linau
Malaysia Endau-Rompin
Malaysia Gunung Pueh
Malaysia Hose-Laga mountains
Malaysia Kabili-Sepilok
Malaysia Kelabit Highlands
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain
Malaysia Kledang Range
Malaysia Krau Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Lambir Hills National Park
Malaysia Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary
Malaysia Maliau Basin Conservation Area
Malaysia Mount Kinabalu
Malaysia Mulu - Buda Protected Area
Malaysia Nakawan Range
Malaysia Niah National Park
Malaysia Panti forest
Malaysia Pondok Tanjung Forest Reserve
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Malaysia Selangor Heritage Park
Malaysia Similajau National Park
Malaysia South-east Pahang peat swamp forest
Malaysia Tabin Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Taman Negara National Park
Malaysia Tanjung Datu-Samunsam Protected Area
Malaysia Ulu Muda
Thailand Bala Sector, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary
Thailand Bu Do - Sungai Padi
Thailand Chaloem Pra Kiet (Pa Phru to Daeng)
Thailand Hala Sector, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary and Bang Lang National Park
Thailand Khao Luang
Thailand Thaleban

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Anorrhinus galeritus. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/bushy-crested-hornbill-anorrhinus-galeritus on 06/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 06/06/2023.