LC
Bulwer's Petrel Bulweria bulwerii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 270,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2004
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 23.9 - - -

Population justification: Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number c.500,000-1,000,000 individuals, while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.100 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 6,100 pairs, which equates to 12,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa U Extant
Anguilla (to UK) U Extant
Antigua and Barbuda U Extant
Australia V Extant
Barbados V Extant
Brazil U Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory U Extant
Cambodia U Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) U Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) U Extant
Cook Islands U Extant
Côte d'Ivoire U Extant
Dominica U Extant
Ecuador U Extant
Fiji U Extant
France V Extant
French Guiana N Extant
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories U Extant
Gambia U Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) U Extant
Guinea U Extant
Guinea-Bissau U Extant
Guyana U Extant
India V Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Ireland V Extant
Italy V Extant
Japan N Extant
Kiribati N Extant Yes
Liberia U Extant
Madagascar U Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) U Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius U Extant
Mexico U Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nauru U Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea U Extant
Philippines U Extant
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) U Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) U Extant
Samoa U Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe U Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Seychelles U Extant
Sierra Leone U Extant
Solomon Islands U Extant
Somalia U Extant
South Africa V Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant
St Lucia U Extant
Suriname U Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Thailand U Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga U Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Tuvalu U Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vietnam U Extant
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) U Extant
Western Sahara U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Desertas
Portugal Ilhas Desertas
Portugal Ilhéu da Praia
Portugal Ilhéu da Vila
Portugal Ilhéu de Baixo e Costa Adjacente
Portugal Laurissilva
Portugal Ponta de São Lourenço
Portugal Selvagens
Portugal Selvagens - Oceânica
Spain Acantilados de Santo Domingo y Roque de Garachico
Spain Aguas de La Gomera - Teno
Spain Aguas y acantilados del Norte de La Palma
Spain Anaga rocky islets
Spain Costa y Aguas de Mogán - La Aldea
Spain La Playa islet
Spain Lanzarote islets
Spain Los Gigantes coastal cliff
Spain Salmor rocky islets
Spain South-west coast of La Gomera
Spain Western coast of El Hierro
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Teira dugesii Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Excess energy - Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Bulweria bulwerii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/03/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/03/2019.