Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The global population is estimated to number 1,300,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight 2020).
The species is undergoing a large increase (Partners in Flight 2020). Over the past three generations (18 years; Bird et al. 2020) the rate of increase equated to 88%, although it is noted that there is some data deficiency for the species (Pardieck et al. 2018).
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Westrip, J.R.S.
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Bucephala albeola. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/12/2022.